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Chapter 8 Memory.docx

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University of Calgary
PSYC 200
Michael Boyes

Chapter 8: Memory – Encoding, Storage and Retrieval • Cognitive neuroscience still developing o Level of the neuron • Predict how we process information • Prototypicality – how “birdy” a bird is • Serial order effect – both groups did better on first 4 items o Paradigm: remember 12 words (3 groups of 4); delay and no delay conditions o Items higher on the list are repeated more often  remembered more easily  Primacy effect o Delay condition – did worse o Items at bottom of list – written down first; short-term memory  No delay group – recency effect • Was sleep on the first list of words? o No – but you thought it was because the words related to sleep o The word eat stands out – distinctive information • Dwarves names – recognition task easier than memory task Memory • The processes that allow us to record experiences and information and to retrieve that information later • Ebbinghaus and the Associationist Approach to Memory o Ebbinghaus – assess basic components of memory  Assessed his own memory in an objective fashion  Stated that memory is associanistic in nature – linking of thoughts and ideas o Association - linking thoughts and ideas - has been regarded as central to all thought processes o Major problems in designing studies – degree of knowledge of words on list  Nonsense syllables  3-letter words – two consonants separated by a vowel  Controlled for association – left with raw memory processes o Associationism: argued that all experience consisted of simple sensations or other psychological "elements“ o Something, either their similarity to one another, or their occurrence together in time links (associates) the simple elements together into a more complex assemblage o Nonsense syllables  3-letter words – two consonants separated by a vowel  Controlled for association – left with raw memory processes Measurement of Memory • Free Recall o Reads or hear a list of single items and then tries to recall them in any order o Among the most difficult to remember • Cued Recall o "Hints" stimulate recall • Paired Associates Learning 1 o Type of cued recall task – memorize pairs of items o The investigator then gives you the first item in each pair and asks you to supply the second • Recognition is the ability to recognize previously presented information o Recognition is easier than recall o Paradigm: people in 70s asked to write down names of classmates in elementary school  Given list of names and asked to pick out names – accuracy well above 50% • Relearning (savings method) = what you are able to vs. learning something new. Ways to Measure the Persistence of a Memory • Methods of Explicit (Direct) Tests o Recall, recognition, and relearning are all explicit, or direct • Methods of Implicit (Indirect) Tests o Implicit, or indirect tests, disguise the testing of memory  E.g., TRUTH, MOUNTAIN, PAINT  TRU ____, Truss, Trust, True, Truth  MOU ____, Mouse, Mouth, Mountain  PAI ____, Pain, Paisley, Paint • People process memory, but awareness comes later; don’t know they’re processing information • Stroke damage – affects one of these processes o Patients able to complete implicit tests, but not explicit tests  Processing information, but unable to access it • Putting into memory  managing information  recognizing that you understand o Higher order processes Perspectives on the Nature of Memory • One perspective = content of memory o What is stored? • Another = information processing approach = structure of memory o How is it organized? Content: Types of Memory • Declarative Memory (factual memory) o Is the ability to remember and verbalize information o Episodic memory: is the memory of particular events in your life  Amnesia (fugue state) – loses episodic memory (don’t recognize friends/family, doesn’t know job, etc.) o Semantic memory: is the memory of general principles  Amnesia patients – intact  Therefore, episodic/semantic memories are processed/managed differently – possible to lose one and keep another • Non-declarative Memory (implicit memory) o Procedural information: is the ability to remember how to perform an acquired skill o How to do things – e.g. golf swing o Practice o In sports like tennis/skiing, mental visualization can augment performance – works if already quite skilled; sit down and imagine yourself hitting the ball/ski crouch 2  Data supports this Information Processing Approaches • Encoding, storage, and retrieval (related to storage; ease) • Early work in AI in computer science o Terms adopted by cognitive pscyhologists – encoding, storage, retrieval • Memory is likened to a computer • Architectural Concepts: Structure of Memory o Atkinson and Shiffron – different memory stores/registers  Sensory register  Short-term memory (working memory)  Long-term memory The Sensory Register • Also called iconic store – icon: mini version that stands in for the whole thing (computer icons) • Holds incoming sensory information in the form that it comes in o Very brief amount of time • Require attention to process information to any depth o Value of sensory register: allows us to switch our attention o Multitasking – switching between two tasks continually • Don’t process for meaning until we pay attention • Brief storage of sensory information – allows us to shift our attention o “Photographic” memory – children until 8 years of age; study with preschoolers – look at detailed pictures and remember for up to 2 hours after (pictures from original Alice in Wonderland sketches)  Hold onto iconic store for up to 2 hours o 1 second most senses – visual information o 2 seconds for auditory information – meaning of auditory signals doesn’t come out until a split second later • World Memory Competition Short-Term Memory • Working memory • Short-term memory is a subset of immediate information that we’re paying attention to o Only temporary (about 30 sec) – longer than iconic store o Memory for the things that are the focus of attention at the moment o Capacity (estimated 5 - 9 units) or +/- 7  E.g. have people memorize string of single-digit numbers – can manage 5-9 numbers without any o Auditory versus semantic code  Auditory code – our voice repeating items inside our heads  Semantic code – more important to long-term memory  E.g. study where people given a list of similar-meaning words (big, large, huge) o Immediately tested: stored in auditory code; people include words that sound similar but weren’t on the list (e.g. big and pig) 3 o Tested after: stored in semantic code; people include words that mean similar things but weren’t on the list (e.g. big and enormous) o We can use strategies to improve on this: (no deeper meaning)  Repeat over and over again; longer you rehearse more likely that information will move to long term memory o Primacy effect reflects this o Memory bottleneck  Chunking – putting information together into units; e.g. chunking single-digit numbers into 2-3 digit numbers (use less spots in memory), can store more multiple digit numbers o Allows application of meaning o E.g. person could memorize 86 digits in a row  Maintenance rehearsal  Elaborative rehearsal – e.g. imagine walking through a street, numbers mentally “placed” in street LISTEN TO PODCAST (time now 3:41 pm) • Princess Diana’s death – only bodyguard survived crash o Guard couldn’t remember anything a couple of hours before/after – short-term memory lost  Did better 2 months later o Implications: maybe more continuous features of memory Long-Term Memory • Hard drive • The capacity of long-term store is more difficult to assess • Well-established long-term memories are more or less permanent o No limit • Semantic code – meaning o Memory is associanistic in nature
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