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Development in Adolescence & adulthood.pdf

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University of Calgary
PSYC 203
Melissa Boyce

Development in Adolescence & Adulthood what is adolescence? Transition from childhood to adulthood. - Period extending from ~13-22 yrs of age (western) Time frame is not universal! Affected by Education, economic forces (you'll still be adolescence until you move out Physical changes Puberty (8-14 girls, 9-15 boys) Boys are more (+) about their bodies than girls as they pass through adolescence The timing of puberty has implications [late maturing boys: anxious & self-conscious]. Early maturing girls have more academic problems, lower self-confidence & earlier experiences with alcohol + sex. Heavier someone is, earlier they will get their period. (other factors: lack of exercise, food additives, pollutants) Cognitive changes (~ age 12) Reason using “formal operations”: – can engage in deductive logic (ie can use a general principle to determine a specific outcome) – Can think in terms of abstract concepts (ie possibilities & what-ifs) – Can generate multiple hypotheses & systematically test them. – Adolescent ego-centrism -> cognitive distortions - Imaginary audience (Adolescents often see themselves as being “center stage” e.g. But everyone will notice! - Personal fable (special/unique) - Inflated opinion of importance - See one's self as totally unique - e.g., you can't possibly understand how I feel Personal changes – Erikson's Psychosocial Model 8 stages of psychosocial development - each stage contributes to a unique sense of self. - Lifelong process. Each stage= question. – Adolescence is a time for searching for 1's identity. – Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) *Life goals - Growth & turmoil of adolescence creates an “identity crisis” - crisis is resolved by forming an identity (developing a sense of identity is filled with tension. It carries with it the need to make choices, but also the possibility of making the wrong decision) – Failure to form an identity leads to confusion about adult roles Marcia's Identity Statues Adolescents can occupy 1 of 4 identity statuses, depending on one's progress on 2 dimensions: exploration: a search for a value system and commitment: adoption of a value system. If no crisis: identity confusion. Crisis Present Crisis Absent Commitment Identity achievement (achieved Identity Foreclosure (Unquestioning present successfully) adoption of parental/societal values) Commitment Identity Moratorium (Active struggle Identity Diffusion (No struggle for absent for identity) identity with no concern) STAGES IN ADULTHOOD Early Adulthood (20-40) Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood) • Young adults have a # of life adjustments they have to face: Must commit to lasting intimate & caring relationships 1. Adjusting to the world of work With others - the ability to establish intimate relationships depends 2. Adjusting to marriage and family life. • Complete s
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