Development in Adolescence & Adulthood
what is adolescence? Transition from childhood to adulthood. - Period extending from ~13-22 yrs of age (western)
Time frame is not universal! Affected by Education, economic forces (you'll still be adolescence
until you move out
Puberty (8-14 girls, 9-15 boys) Boys are more (+) about their bodies than girls as they pass through adolescence
The timing of puberty has implications [late maturing boys: anxious & self-conscious]. Early maturing girls have more academic
problems, lower self-confidence & earlier experiences with alcohol + sex.
Heavier someone is, earlier they will get their period. (other factors: lack of exercise, food additives, pollutants)
Cognitive changes (~ age 12)
Reason using “formal operations”:
– can engage in deductive logic (ie can use a general principle to
determine a specific outcome)
– Can think in terms of abstract concepts (ie possibilities & what-ifs)
– Can generate multiple hypotheses & systematically test them.
– Adolescent ego-centrism -> cognitive distortions
- Imaginary audience (Adolescents often see themselves as being
“center stage” e.g. But everyone will notice!
- Personal fable (special/unique)
- Inflated opinion of importance
- See one's self as totally unique
- e.g., you can't possibly understand how I feel
– Erikson's Psychosocial Model
8 stages of psychosocial development
- each stage contributes to a unique sense of self.
- Lifelong process. Each stage= question.
– Adolescence is a time for searching for 1's identity.
– Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) *Life goals
- Growth & turmoil of adolescence creates an “identity crisis”
- crisis is resolved by forming an identity (developing a sense of
identity is filled with tension. It carries with it the need to make
choices, but also the possibility of making the wrong decision)
– Failure to form an identity leads to confusion about adult
Marcia's Identity Statues
Adolescents can occupy 1 of 4 identity statuses, depending on one's progress on 2 dimensions:
exploration: a search for a value system and commitment: adoption of a value system. If no crisis: identity confusion.
Crisis Present Crisis Absent
Commitment Identity achievement (achieved Identity Foreclosure (Unquestioning
present successfully) adoption of parental/societal values)
Commitment Identity Moratorium (Active struggle Identity Diffusion (No struggle for
absent for identity) identity with no concern)
STAGES IN ADULTHOOD
Early Adulthood (20-40) Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)
• Young adults have a # of life adjustments they have to face: Must commit to lasting intimate & caring relationships
1. Adjusting to the world of work With others
- the ability to establish intimate relationships depends
2. Adjusting to marriage and family life.
• Complete s