Archaeology - primary way to learn about prehistoric human past. More important to indigenous people rather than specific dates and times. Use broad things to describe time e. g. glaciers melt, time immemorial. Anywhere there is a physical evidence of human activity e. g. settlements. A lot of organic material artifacts as well (harder to find) 4 types of archaeology: academic, crm, indigenous, amateur. North america has been populated since 19000 yrs ago. Effective way to hunt big game animals. Christopher columbus was not the first to discover america. North america was the last place to be colonized. Similarities and adapted technique do not prove that certain people were less intelli- gent than others depending on continent: analysis and presentation of artifacts. Methods of dating and analysis: relative dating techniques, principle of stratigraphy. Based solely on location e. g. artifacts closer to surface = newer.