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Lecture 6

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ANTH 3650
Edward Hedican

ANTH*3650 Week 6 – The Archaic Period (5,000 – 1,000 BC) October 27 – November 1, 2011 A. Main Characteristics •A period of about 4,000 years •Transition, change and motivation are main themes •This period leads into our present day world 1. Climatic Change: Alti-Thermal Period (4500-2500 BC) •A period of general warming before slight cooling ~Today, we are on the cool side of the max •The main point in the Alti-Thermal period is the high temperature that is reached 2. Geographic Change: Glacial Lakes •Large glacial lakes were formed from the melting and spreading of the ice sheets 3. Habitat Changes: Grasslands to Forest Cover •The area that is now Thunder Bay, had a very similar ecological zone to what we have now-a-days in Southern Ontario (hardwood forests in particular) 4. Animal Movements •Some animal species died out •Many animal species had to adapt with the changing environment, others simply followed their habitat as it spread •As water levels were rising and more glacial lakes were being formed, many animals grew to live in aquatic environments ~Beavers became more abundant 5. Cultural Innovations: •Humans were greatly affected by the climate changes ~Lots of stress on the species ~Adaptation was necessary: they had to change their food source and way of living ~Everyone took advantages of the changes and did not give up ~Learning was done from difficulties and failures a. Adaptations to varied/diversified environments •With the changing environment, humans adapted their ways of living and hunting •Found the biggest game and hunted it b. Technological Innovations, ie, copper tools, specialized harpoons •With the discovery of copper, humans were able to fashion new, more advanced tools •With new tools came new methods of hunting ANTH*3650 Week 6 – The Archaic Period (5,000 – 1,000 BC) October 27 – November 1, 2011 c. Social/ Cultural traits: Mound building, Complex burials, complex social/ political differentiation, religion, trade, crafts •Visually, cultures did not change very much, they still were hunting groups that lived in relatively small groups •The biggest change was to technology and the use of copper B. Regional Variations: •Sites of early archaic adaptation •Finding of a new food supply and technological adaptations 1. Old Copper Culture (pgs 142-144) •The time frame that most copper objects were found were dated around 5,500 to 3,000 BP •Copper sites were found in the areas around the great lakes (on the beaches) ~Soon it was found in the hillsides ~Was found in a relatively pure state ~The materials were found thanks to the melting of glacial till and what ice left behind after it scraped across the land, was found in copper “nodules” •Copper was excavated and used to make various tools and objects •Copper is a very malleable, soft material ~It could be formed and changed fairly easily ~People beat it with rocks and bones •When copper is heated, it becomes even more malleable •Items that were made include tools, spear points, jewelry and disk shaped obj
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