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Lecture 19

Lecture notes for lecture 19 Nov. 17

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 3690
Professor
Marta Rohatynskyj

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Lecture 19 Nov. 17. 2011 A Few Words About Foucault Post-Structuralism and Post-Modernism • Post-Structuralism posited that the imposition of a structure on everything was a mistake - reaction to work of Levi-Strauss and others. Where everything in world was in relations to set of structures. • This imposition was a form of oppression • Postmodernism is based on an extreme relativity • There is a skepticism of metanarratives and an emphasis on the unique perspectives of the individual. • Both are based on a rupture of the relationship between the signifier and the signified • This presupposes that there is no objective reality to be grasped • In what was is Appadurai a post-structuralist? Post-modernist? - inherent disorder. Concept of de-teritorialization - ethnoscapes - focus on the individual Key Ideas of Michel Foucault • Discourse: This is a product of the Enlightenment development of the human sciences - medicine, psychiatry, psychology, criminology, sociology • These sciences created both the standard of normality for human beings and defined the deviation • The human sciences have made man the subject of study and have made him a subject of the state. • Thus we have a political order that is based on a scientific order and none of it is natural, it is all constructed • Genealogy - to recover the origins of discourse and the rediscovery of fragmentary, local and specific knowledge Self-Interest and The Social Good: Some Implications of Hagen Gender Imagery (1981) Dame Marilyn Strathern • This article critiques several approaches to the study of women/gender relations of the time • These approaches grew out of an attempt to create a space for the ethnographic study of women • Woman hold a different model of society and the world than men do, especially in male dominated societies • In as much as the discipline has studied men’s models, it is now time to look at women’s models • this was seen as liberatory, empowering women by giving them voice • Strathern - recovering women’s models does not make them any less dominated in these societies • What we need to understand how women relate to the dominant models of the society without necessarily taking their sense of value from them - redefining the problem of women in anthropology. - how women understand men’s models The Real Issue • Western sociology and anthropology assume an opposition between society and the individual • This opposition is not true in all societies • It is a product of the Enlightenment (as Foucault said) • We have to look at how each culture perceives individuals and groups • In Hagen, there is a division made between clan/public interests and domestic individual interests (ethnography) • There is a particular construction of the social person that is ethnographically observable • Person: A culturally constituted moral entity (Dumont) Gender and the Person in Hagen • Males propound a stereotype of women as being weak, lacking purpose and indulging in consumption - self interest • Men on the other hand have purpose, work with a goal in mind of making an impact in the public domain exchange - public good - shes writing about people who are cash croppers (coffee) - sometimes women sell own crops, mostly work with their husbands • In terms of observable behavior, women do act with purpose, they work and save money which they use to contribute to the projects of their husbands’ in the public domain (buying a truck, ritual exchange) • Even though there is a gender stereotype of women acting on self-interest while men work for the public good this is not born out in actual conduct Gender as a Metaphor for Cultural Success and Failure • All women are denigrated as acting o
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