ARTH1520Chapter 29.docx

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18 Apr 2012
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Chapter 29 (18th and early 19th century)- Revolution and Reaction
1600s periodintroduced a lot of new things
genre paintings
people fmor middle and lower classes, not just aristorcracy
moral component that constantly links
landscape and emotionalismBaroque period when catholic
church in roman wanted to get art out there that would have
emotional impact on viewer
18th centuryIndustrial revolution beginning
intellectual revolution introduced by sciencespills over into
political
see American revolution, French revolution
The Enlightenmen
John Locke1632-1704
o Widely known as Father of Liberalism
o Enligh philosopher and physician
o Considered one of first British empiricists
Issac Newton- 1642-1727
o Engligh physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural
philosopher, alchemist, and theologian
o Been considered by many to be greatest and most
influential
Blonde Odalisque (Louise O’Murphy)
By Francois Boucher 1745
Refined, elegant, a prettiness to toas mannerism did
without bizarre disortions
Highly successful painterfavorite mistress of french king at
the time
Work intended to appeal to the sensesas pertained to
eroticism
What’s different about this?
o Venus of Urbinosuggested fidelity, argued as marriage
portrait
o No narrative or classical story hereno putti, no ruins
o Model is actually someone people knowmakes it looks
as if she is almost available
Different level of interaction
Fragonard, The Swing
1766
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still interested in soething refined, elegant, aristocratic taste
love triangle in this picture
different in that it is going back to narrativesetting up
classical, scultural putti on the side
garden setting rather than bedroomturning garden into a
room of pleasure as well
o popular motif at the time
The Grand Tour
Emil Brach1860-1905
People becoming more mobile
Something becoming popular for people to doplanning the
grand tour
o Grand tour ideabecomes important idea for emerging
middle class
o Travel important to aristocratic classeducated to a
point and then started to travel for rest of education
(i.e. Rome)- to visit classical past
Look at architecture, art,
Neoclassicismlife as much as a visual styleas a way of life
o Ideals of the past (Roman virtue, citizenship, morality,
philosophy, literature)became embedded in who you
were
o Took on board as part of social identity
o NEO classicalcommissioned for public displaycapable
of inspiring nationalism
o Intellectuals and artists became to congregate
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
German
Interest in neoclassical
Published work called “thoughts of innotation of greek works:
painting and sculpture”
o **he is writing about greek and roman sculpture
o urged all artists to copy the classics
he was first person in 1750 to look at classical works and
discern diffent styles among them
his work is stil major source for learning about classical art
Anton MengsParnassus
Albani
Good friend of Winckelmann
Parnassus is mountain when God’s lived—Apollo in center,
god of musicmusic related to mathematics, he is almost god
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of poertyalso related to mathematics in creation of specific
lines
Surrounded by musesform classical mythology
o Zeus has 9 daughters with woman named Memory
oversee and look after all knowledge
Arranged, symmetrical composition
Copied figures from ancient sculpture
May well be considered as first neoclassical image
Canova- Pauline Borghese as Venus
1808ability of sculpture influenced by Bernini, but not doing
distortions
Winckelmann’s ideas being applied to sculpture
He did public monuments and erotic, mythological figures for
patrons
Husband of Pauline did not like ithinted at a lifestyle as hers
that she enjoyed without himsecluded sculpture in different
room
Classical sereneity
Winkelmann gave value judgement to things
Neoclassicism NOT all that was happening
Romanticismwasn’t happening too much in Italy or France
German and England were more of the Romantics
Neoclassicism and Romanticism
Both refer to visual style AND attitude/philosophical approach
to life
Johann Wolfgang vo Goethe, The Sorrows of the Young
Werther
o 1744Romantic poem, about young man who falls in
love and commits suicide
Joshua Reynolds- Lady Sarah Bunbury
1765- in his own writing about art, he is a romanticart has
to do more than be a copy of nature or simply based on
observation
o problems with empiricists of enlightenment
o he preferred (classicsm can be romantic)likes idealism
of Romantic work
classical architecture
portait of woman prized for her beauty, making sacrifice to
altar
thinking about artabout idea that the image communicates
give us a style and personal lifestyle choice
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