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BIOL 2060 Lecture Notes - Net Reproduction Rate, Dengue Fever, Intraspecific Competition

Course Code
BIOL 2060
Elizabeth Boulding

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Ecology Notes F’12
Ecology: scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments (abiotic & biotic)
Equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography:
Immigration rate decreases as # of species on newly formed island accumulate because most species that
arrive from main land species pool will already be present
Extinction rate increases as # of species on new island accumulate because:
o Larger island pool of potential extinctions
o Increased crowding decreases population size per species
o Potential for competitive interactions increases as multiple species w/ similar requirements arrive
Hypothesis: cause & effect explanation; A occurs because of B
Prediction: C; If A occurs because of B, then you would expect C to be true
Essentials of manipulative field experiment design (RRC)
-species richness=(island_area)k
-isolated islands have fewer of mainland species
-Theory: species richness on island dynamic equilibrium between immigration rates (distance)
& extinction rate (island size)
-experimental results mostly support theory but it needs revision
Factors affecting distribution and abundance of a species (abiotic)
Transplant through experiments
Physiological ecology
o Liebig’s law of the minimum
o Shelford’s law of tolerance
Geographical range and climate

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o Temperature
o moisture
Climate change
o Range existence
o Phonological changes in beginning of reproduction
Liebig’s Law of the Minimum (Below Left)
Rate of a biological process is limited by the factor in which least amount relative to organism’s requirements
Growth is limited by factor farthest from optimum
Shelford’s Law of Tolerance (Above Right)
Distribution of a species is controlled by the environment factor for which organism has narrowest range of
Can we see the consequences of global climate change yet?
Shifts in breeding times of birds
Changes in intertidal and shallow water communities on the California coast
Appearances of malaria, dengue fever and other mosquito born diseases in highlands of Asia, central Africa
and Latin America
Factors affecting distribution and abundance of a species (biotic)
o Diffusion
o Jump dispersal
o Secular dispersal
Habitat selection
Interactions w/ other species
o Competition
o Predation
Diffusion: gradual spread of limits of geographic range of a species over ecological time
Jump Dispersal: long distance movement of particular individuals, often w/ the aid of wind or another species,
followed by successful establishment of a new population
Secular Dispersal: diffusion & local adaptation of a species over geological time (very slow diffusion)
Invasion Theory
What determines which introduced species becomes established?
o Propagule size
Allele effect (must find mate, predator avoidance)
High genetic diversity required
o Ability to tolerate climate
o Lack of biotic resistance
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