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Lecture 3

Ecology Lecture 3.doc

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BIOL 2060

Ecology – Lecture 3 - Biogeography: a branch of ecology that examines where species occur & what causes patterns of species distribution & richness - Historical biogeography: The study of how evolutionary lineages affect current & historic distributions of species & biotas (collections of species), paying particular attention to the roles played by speciation, extinction, & dispersal. Why a Biosphere? - Why is there life? - Habital Zone: “sweet spot” for liquid water  Earth gets warm, but not too warm - Planetary Crust: 1 degree, 2 degree, & 3 degree (very rare) surface is returned to mantle  Tertiary crust; always being regenerated & consumed - Greenhouse Effect: dynamic equillibrium – CO atmo2phere versus erosion of continental silicate  Normal effect; without it we wouldn’t have an atmostphere – keeps heat on Earth from radiating back into space Liquid Water - Water bodies: freeze from top down – coldest water on bottom. - Non-linear relationship of water density/degree celcius - Max. density at 4 degrees celcius (heaviest); gets lighter below that temperature - EX. An ice cube floats because it is colder that 4 degrees. - Cold water has the highest oxygen content Earth’s Crust - Crust is the layer on the very top - Continental granitic crust (silicates): very light - Divergence: producing new crust as the crust moves away at the mid-ocean ridge.  Converges with continental crust, but since it is heavy & made of salt, it converges below the continental crust (deep) - Tertiary crust is returned to mantle = plate tectonics Carbonate-silicate Cycle 1. Atmospheric CO di2solves in rainwater 2. Rainfall erodes rock on land; rivers carry broken-down minerals to the sea 3. Ca & H C2 in3o shells & exoskeleton 4. Broken-down minerals react with disolved CO to f2rm carbonate rocks. 5. Carbonate rocks subduct & melt, releasing CO 2  * * Marine organisms use & trap the CO for g2ological time scales = regulates greenhouse Continental Drift - Jigsaw puzzle - 1 : Pangea - Ring of fire: pacific volcanoes in subduction zones - Fossils: Dr. Seuss looked at fossil tree ferns that looked alike, & fossil reptiles that looked the same  but they were from different continents - Found that when you went across the Atlantic Ocean there were patterns that matched on either side of the ridge - Youngest rocks are along the mid-atlantic ridge (where new rock is formed) Plate Tectonics - 7 primary plates, 8 secondary plates & ~60 tertiary plates - 15 (primary & secondary plates) - Convergence: plates that collide - Vicariance events  Divergence: new plate growth - Allows for species to be split & for evolution to occur - Transform: plates ‘slip’ against each other & rip/tear (earthquakes) - Ocean basins don’t grow as one wedge-shaped plate.  Spreading of ocean floor causes the plates to plow apart Vicariance  Speciation - Frog A is widely distributed through ha
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