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Lecture 3

CIS 1000 Lecture 3: Unit 3


Department
Computing and Information Science
Course Code
CIS 1000
Professor
Zoe Zhu
Lecture
3

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Unit 3: The Internet and the Web
The Origins of the Internet
ARPANENT: The Precursor to the Internet
In the late 1950s, in the Cold War, the U.S armed forces became concerned that a Soviet
attack on their telephone system could completely shut down their communication
lines. As a response, in the early 1960s, the U.S government created the Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which began work on the ARPA Network (ARPANET)
ARPANET: Started as a four node computer network (Stanford Research Institute, UCLA,
University of California and University of Utah) and in 1969, it delivered its first message
from UCLA to SRI
o It ashed afte delieig the seod lette of its essage logi, though it
marked the beginning of the early Internet
o Over the years, it began to grow to include nodes all over the U.S.A and overseas
The World Wide Web
I the eal eas of the Iteet’s eistee, the We did’t eist
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee began the development of the Web as a means of linking
research documents so that they could be easily accessed by other researches. In
conjunction with Robert Caillau, Berners-Lee developed the basic architecture of the
Web and the first Web browser
In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications released their web
ose Mosai, hih as egiig of the We’s populait
o Since the mid 1900s, the Web has grown and the increasing number of websites
is becoming available to more and more of the worlds population
The Web 2.0
Today the Web is dramatically different than when it was first introduced. Today, it is
commonly referred to as the Web 2.0 describing the shift from static webpages to web
applications that focused on user interaction
Social media, wikis, blogs, video sharing sites and more are all under this definition of
the Web toda’s We is foused o use eated otet, ollaoatio ad soial
interaction
Today there are almost 3 billion people on the internet, viewing nearly 1 billion
websites. The next step in the webs evolution (Web 3.0) Will make this version look
small
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Internet Communication and Collaboration
Internet Communication
The most common methods of communication over the Internet are:
o One-to-one messaging (e.g. e-mail)
o One-to-many messaging (e.g. listerv)
o Distributed message databases (e.g. USENET newsgroups)
o Real time communication (e.g. IRC)
o Real time remote computer utilization (e.g. Telnet)
o Remote information retrieval (e.g. FTP, fopher or the WWW)
Most of these methods can be used to transmit text, sound, images or computer
programs
E-mail
A method of exchanging digital messages between one or more people
Early versions of email operated similar to Instant Messaging, in that both the authors
and recipients had to be online at the same time
Toda’s eail sste ae ased o a stoe-and-forward model, meaning neither the
recipient nor their computers need to be online simultaneously
User must connect to their mail server for enough time to either send or receive a
message
Instant Messaging
Instant Messaging (also known as IM) services enable real-time communication over the
Internet
People you are communicating with need to be online at the same time as you,
although some services allow you to send messages to offline users, which they will see
the next time they use the service
IM services are generally used for small group communication, often between friends or
a small business team
o Include Skype, Viber and the individual chat features of many social networking
sites like Facebook
Social Networking
Means by which people communicate and share information with their friends and
family, and connect with new people through common interests and mutual friends
A means for someone to stay connected to people all over the world
Social Networking services tend to include a variety of different means of
communication, including IM, chat rooms, voice chat, and video chat, all accessible
through a single online account
o Services include Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, etc and are often the reason
why some older web users choose to join the web community
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Privacy is a major concern the possibility of identity theft and onine stalkers is
particularly concerning, despite major changes to privacy policies and security, these
issues are still the primary concern today
Important to remember that nothing done on social media is truly private, and in the
job market, your potential employer may consider your Facebook page to be a better
representation of you than your resume
Facebook and Twitter are one of the most popular social media websites in the world. It
is used to stay in touch with friends and family, share content with people from around
the world
Blogs and Vlogs
A blog (or weblog) is a public journal posted on the Web. They generally consist of just
text and images, and usually only have a single author
Growing number of services where you can create or read a blog, and most of them are
free for basic features like blogger.com and wordpress.com
Content of blogs vary from personal ramblings to extensive tutorials, but are generally
not creditable sources
A vlog is a video journal posted on the web, similar to blogs but their contents are often
unedited
o Typically, are found on video hosting services that allow anyone to host content.
Some of the most popular channels on YouTube are vloggers
Wiki
A collection of information gathered and editable by a community
Composed of a collection of pages, each on a particular topic
Full revision history is kept so that it is possible to undo any undesired changes to a page
Public wikis can be read and edited by anyone with Internet access, and because of this
they are not considered to be creditable sources, even though large wikis are policed
and kept fairly accurate by moderators
Wikipedia is uetl the old’s lagest iki; also o of the lagest olletios of
written knowledge in human history
o Often seen as inaccurate by academics, locking features and academic assistance
have made a lot of pages on Wikipedia very accurate, with a wide range of view
points and considerations
o A drawback of a wiki being open is that some pages can be changed by less
friendly members of the community to be deliberately inaccurate
Tons of wikis out on the Web as well, though few on them focus on the same range of
topics. Most are specialized wikis on a single topic. A few specialize in history or
philosophy with purely academic sources, and others are built around community
knowledge of games of television series
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