-The other-He is the other because he has sexual ambiguity, hairy palms which, at the
time, shows difference from society, hidden castle, very conservative, old but strong.
Vampire are generally the other because they are opposite to society members, eat babies,
have unleashed sexuality and the idea of vampires is shunned and rejected. With the
demons of the pit where he says “he’s mine” and tosses a baby at them to eat and Lucy
“carelessly tosses the child aside with blood dripping down her dress.” Renfield “the
mentally ill” are seen as the other. The East is backwards compared to the West and this is
shown from how the trains don’t come on time and eventually how they have to go by
coach to the castle. Vampires/Dracula are very animalistic and take on animal
characteristics…e.g. Lucy growls over the child like a dog over a bone. Dracula essentially
threatens the idea of the traditional family but eventually the family overcomes the threat
purely because Mina and Harker have a child.
-Invasion-A cultural invasion (of England/ West) masked as a biological invasion. Biting
of Lucy/corruption of her and represents the pure woman. Invade the general proper idea of
relationships/people’s roles by biting Mina and almost destroying hers and Harkers
relationship. Invasion is the corruption of a society/ individuals.
-Blood-Dracula’s “tainted blood” of his ancestors making a pact with the devil and he is
the one that is paying the price. Baptism of blood…Mina forcibly drinking his blood,
flooding her mouth and this connects Mina to Dracula’s world…forcing Mina to ‘cheat’ on
Harker...Harkers hair changes white. The transfusions are mixing the guys strong blood to
replace Lucy’s blood loss…idea of mixing blood is generally bad because of blood types
but not known at this time. All “married” because they have shared blood. Blood represents
so much in this book e.g. semen, menstruation. Blood is literally life in this case…
Renfield literally consumes animals to take in their life force. He regenerates through the
taking of blood. Blood in unrepressed sexuality.
-Sleep-Where Lucy is taken over and when they are bitten. Sleepwalking is a child like
disease and seen as the other because it is different and shunned by society (Lucy hides that
fact that they are out). However because she does it involuntarily her purity is preserved
and she is seen as more childlike/innocent. Lucy sleepwalking is equal to Harker going to
Dracula’s castle which shows they have both entered Dracula’s world. Her vampireness
came out when she was asleep because that was when she pulled at the garlic. Dracula
preserves himself/regenerates through sleep because Harker sees him looking young in his
coffin. Sleep is the supernatural realm and Dracula is in both of them, they don’t want to
fall asleep because the nightmare is so bad…they actually don’t rest when they are asleep.
Dracula and the East are representations of a living nightmare (nightmare scape). Mina
thought she was asleep when Dracula made her drink which mimics when Harker is at
Dracula’s castle and he thinks that the experience with the demons in the pit was a dream
but it wasn’t.
-Sexuality-Lucy is the ‘new woman’ because she wants to marry all 3 men and save her
the trouble of choosing this want shows she is doomed because she is already breaking into
otherness and having unleashed sexuality. Demons of the pit have unleashed sexuality and
reveal this through interactions with harker. Dracula’s ambiguous sexuality, The killing of
Lucy is very sexual “driving the steak through her heart” very sexual. Lucy changes from a
pure innocent woman to a voluptuous mischievous woman. Blood transfusions/drinking of
blood is a sexual act. -Women’s roles-Pure vs voluptuous, pure is sexual virginity and sex for procreation but
voluptuous is sexuality unleashed and being attractive/pleasure to the senses. Demons of
the pit lure Harker in through their sex appeal. The new woman is strong, independent,
useful to men, believes in equality ect. Mina is a comfortable mix between old and new
woman by being useful, strong, believing in equality (she helps them kill Dracula) but she
also believes in being a good wife and in getting married. Women are the only ones
targeted for the invasion because women are seen as weaker both physically and mentally
and the men’s jobs then are to protect them. Mina is the one who writes everything down
and eventually puts everything together. Mina’s role is being caring/brave which is shown
in how she fights Dracula and also how she cares for Lucy when she is sleepwalking.
Anxiety of women. Novel is generally looking at the threat of the new woman and
unleashed women’s sexuality. Guys have to give their strong blood to Lucy who is weak.
-Epistolary novel-We don’t hear from Dracula which makes him very ambiguous. Shows
the novel through newspaper clippings and peoples diaries/notes. Makes the story more
believable and shows support for each source. So many different components complete the
-Good and bad-Very undefined but we see it as the East vs. West. We see Dracula as bad
but really he is just seeking his place, freed from his own pain etc. His actions can be
justified but the personification of vampires presents an all powerful evil.
-Supernatural-Dracula is an embodiment of supernaturalism. “the blue flames” when
Harker goes to the castle. Dracula being able to shape shift and animals being agitated
when Dracula is around. The moonlight showing like werewolves and just supernatural
-Renaissance/morality play-We can see Faust as a sinful and righteous victim of the
world view of medieval Christianity. Christianity sees him as bad because of the
knowledge he seeks (worldly knowledge). Or he is the hero of the emerging modern world
free of God and religion and societal limits.
-Good vs. Evil-Good is the scriptures and following the way of God as well as being
fearful of God. Evil is the possession of worldly knowledge and following the devil.
-Salvation/damnation-He is given many opportunities to repent but he chooses not to. His
choice is powerful because he is given the choice to repent, be good and follow God over
and over again but he choices the way of the devil. First stage is his choice to read worldly
books, want of worldly knowledge and power, decision to conjure a devil, decision to make
the deal with the devil and then his choice to live out the deal and his choice not to repent
when given the opportunity. At the end he expresses regret and says “my hands are tied”
which shows how he feels it isn’t his fault. Metaphisto wants to repent and wishes he
hadn’t fallen with Lucifer.
-Other-Faust is the other because he breaks free f