Chapter 7- Families.doc

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010

Chapter 7 - Summary Notes GrowthinMiddleChildhood PhysicalGrowthandSensoryDevelopment -growth at steady pace, 2-3 inches/year in height & 5-7lbs/year in weight -6-10 year olds have lowest BMI (body mass index: a measure of the ratio of weight to height) -from 6-12 children lose all of primary teeth and new teeth replace them hearing changes for the better, sight often for the worse myopia (nearsighted) rises in middle childhood -more likely to occur in developed countries (reading, writing, computers) but also partly genetic' NutritionandMalnutrition Malnutrition -even though immune system and bodies are stronger, malnutrition still plays effect -if you survive early malnutrition, there is still damage to physical and cognitive development -more likely to be sad, anxious, and withdrawn -if malnutrition began after age 3, no permanent effects Obesity -ages 6-10 considered to be overweight is BMI exceeds 18 and obese if BMI exceeds 21 -Rates highest in United States in the least affluent minority groups (Latinos, Native Americans) -people have become less likely to cook and instead order fast food -parents more likely to be single parents or part of a dual-earner couple -rising in developing countries now too because their diets are becoming like those in developed countries -another big contributor television -children that watched at least 3 hours a day of TV gained 40% more body fat then those that watched less than 1.5 hours -internet + video games contributor -genetics can contribute -gene FTO increases children's risk for obesity -obesity higher among MZ twins than DZ twins -obesity has social and physical consequences and by middle childhood is risk for emotional and behavioural problems -obesity can result in diabetes (which can lead to blindness, kidney failure, stroke) -hard to shake from childhood to adulthood How to fix this? -recognize problem -healthier lunches IllnessandInjuries -middle childhood healthiest and safest time of life -children have received vaccinations to diseases -food becoming safer and cleaner -air become cleaner in developed countries -one exception to trend is asthma (illness of lungs) -triggered by cold weather, exercise, illness, allergies, emotional stress, or for no reason -rates of asthma highest in middle childhood -in developed countries caused by many cleaning products so less sickness when young and lower immune system -in developing caused by pollution -most common cause of injury is automobile and bicycle accidents in middle childhood MotorDevelopment GrossMotorDevelopment -balance improves -become stronger -coordination advances -greater agility -faster reaction time -increasing myelination of the corpus callosum connection two hemispheres of brain accelerates reaction time -children can enjoy wide variety of games and sports FIneMotorDevelopment -in developing countries children become factory workers because of ability to perform fine motor tasks -evident in drawing and writing -by age 6 most can write letters of alphabet, names, and numbers from 1- 10 -by 8 or 9 can write cursive TheoriesofCognitiveDevelopment Paiget's: ConcreteOperations -children develop better grasp of what physical world is like -at 7 children become more systematic, playful and logical thinkers -Piaget termed ages 1-11 as concrete operational -use mental operations AdvancesinConcreteOperations -child now has abilities for decentering (cognitive ability to take more than one aspect of a problem into account) that the pre operational child lacks -conservation of matter and liquid attained -conservation milestone because children can perceive regularities and principles in natural world -second important achievement is classification -third achievement is seriation (ability to arrange things in a logical order, such as shortest to longest) -transitive inherence: ability to place objects in a logical order mentally EvaluationPaiget'sTheory: -Issue came up about what qualifies a child as a concrete operational thinker? -Piaget argued it had to come naturally, you can't teach it InformationProcessing AttentionandADHD -children more capable of focussing attention on relevant information and disregard irrelevant information (selective attention) -attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness -in US 3-7% of children have ADHD -boys 4 times more likely -first diagnosed in middle childhood once children enter school -cause unclear, but partly inherited --exposure to prenatal teratogens (alcohol and drugs) risk factor for ADHD -brains in children with ADHD grow slower -medications often effective -concerns about side effects are slower physical growth and higher risk of depression Memory -capacity of working memory enlarges -children first learn to use mnemonics (memory strategies such as rehearsal, organization, and elaboration) REHEARSAL -repeating information over and over ORGANIZATION -putting things into meaningful categories ELABORATION -transforming bits of information in a way that connects the, and hence makes them easier to understand -ex; the lines of a treble clef EGBDF (every good boy does fine) -middle childhood time of advance in metamemory: understanding of how memory works IntelligenceandIntelligenceTests -individual differences among children in cognitive functioning -differences focussed mainly on measurements of intelligence (capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems) TheWechslerIntelligenceTests -most widely used intelligence test -consists of 11 subtests, 6 of which are verbal subtests and 5 are performance subtests -results provide overall intelligent quotient or IQ -calculated relative to performance of other people of the same age with 100 as the median -more detailed in WISC-IV (page 300) -IQ scores good predictor of success in adulthood InfluencesonIntelligence normal distribution: typical distribution of characteristics of a population resembling a bell curve in which most cases fall near the middle and the proportions decrease at the low and high extremes -when IQ is below 70, classified as mental retardation, above 130 classified as gifted -environment influence on IQ -genetics contribute strongly to IQ -every child has genetically based reaction range for intelligence -optimal environment helps -influence of environment stronger for poor children Flynn Effect: steep rise in the median IQ score in Western Countries during the 20th century, named after James Flynn -causes of this must be environmental -better prenatal care, smaller families, more children attend pre school, also television plays factor -most persuasive explanation is the decline in infectious diseases OtherConceptionsofIntelligence:Gardner'sandSternberg'sTheories -Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences includes 8 types of intelligence -in his view, two are evaluated by intelligence tests(linguistic and logical- mathematical) -others are spatial, musical, bodily-kinethetic, naturalist, interpersonal and intrapersonal -each involves distinctive cognitive skills, which can be destroyed by damage to a certain part of the brain -people found Gardner's method too wide and was better viewed as "emotional sensitivity" rather than intelligence -Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence includes 3 forms of intelligence -analytical intelligence involves acquiring, storing, analyzing, and retrieving information -creative intelligence involves ability to combine information to produce ideas, insights, and problem-solving strategies -practical intelligence is ability to apply information to problems faced in everyday life -theory has been tested little outside the united states LearningtheCognitiveSkillsofSchool:ReadingandMathematics ApproachestoReading Phonics Approach: -breaking down words into component sounds, called phonics, then putting the phonics together into words -learning is gradually more complex Whole-Language Approach: -emphasis is on the meaning of written language in whole passages, rather then breaking them into smaller components -children encouraged to guess at the meaning of words they don't know -phonics approach more effective -once learned, substituting whole-language approach in is recommended -most children can read by grade 3 -dyslexia: leaning disability that includes difficulty sounding out letters, learning to spell words, and a tendency to misperceive the order of letters in words (very common) -learning disabilities: cognitive disorder that impedes the development of learning a specific skill such as math or reading -boys 3 times
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