Chapter 7- Families.doc

16 Pages
60 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 1010
Professor
Unknown
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7 - Summary Notes GrowthinMiddleChildhood PhysicalGrowthandSensoryDevelopment -growth at steady pace, 2-3 inches/year in height & 5-7lbs/year in weight -6-10 year olds have lowest BMI (body mass index: a measure of the ratio of weight to height) -from 6-12 children lose all of primary teeth and new teeth replace them hearing changes for the better, sight often for the worse myopia (nearsighted) rises in middle childhood -more likely to occur in developed countries (reading, writing, computers) but also partly genetic' NutritionandMalnutrition Malnutrition -even though immune system and bodies are stronger, malnutrition still plays effect -if you survive early malnutrition, there is still damage to physical and cognitive development -more likely to be sad, anxious, and withdrawn -if malnutrition began after age 3, no permanent effects Obesity -ages 6-10 considered to be overweight is BMI exceeds 18 and obese if BMI exceeds 21 -Rates highest in United States in the least affluent minority groups (Latinos, Native Americans) -people have become less likely to cook and instead order fast food -parents more likely to be single parents or part of a dual-earner couple -rising in developing countries now too because their diets are becoming like those in developed countries -another big contributor television -children that watched at least 3 hours a day of TV gained 40% more body fat then those that watched less than 1.5 hours -internet + video games contributor -genetics can contribute -gene FTO increases children's risk for obesity -obesity higher among MZ twins than DZ twins -obesity has social and physical consequences and by middle childhood is risk for emotional and behavioural problems -obesity can result in diabetes (which can lead to blindness, kidney failure, stroke) -hard to shake from childhood to adulthood How to fix this? -recognize problem -healthier lunches IllnessandInjuries -middle childhood healthiest and safest time of life -children have received vaccinations to diseases -food becoming safer and cleaner -air become cleaner in developed countries -one exception to trend is asthma (illness of lungs) -triggered by cold weather, exercise, illness, allergies, emotional stress, or for no reason -rates of asthma highest in middle childhood -in developed countries caused by many cleaning products so less sickness when young and lower immune system -in developing caused by pollution -most common cause of injury is automobile and bicycle accidents in middle childhood MotorDevelopment GrossMotorDevelopment -balance improves -become stronger -coordination advances -greater agility -faster reaction time -increasing myelination of the corpus callosum connection two hemispheres of brain accelerates reaction time -children can enjoy wide variety of games and sports FIneMotorDevelopment -in developing countries children become factory workers because of ability to perform fine motor tasks -evident in drawing and writing -by age 6 most can write letters of alphabet, names, and numbers from 1- 10 -by 8 or 9 can write cursive TheoriesofCognitiveDevelopment Paiget's: ConcreteOperations -children develop better grasp of what physical world is like -at 7 children become more systematic, playful and logical thinkers -Piaget termed ages 1-11 as concrete operational -use mental operations AdvancesinConcreteOperations -child now has abilities for decentering (cognitive ability to take more than one aspect of a problem into account) that the pre operational child lacks -conservation of matter and liquid attained -conservation milestone because children can perceive regularities and principles in natural world -second important achievement is classification -third achievement is seriation (ability to arrange things in a logical order, such as shortest to longest) -transitive inherence: ability to place objects in a logical order mentally EvaluationPaiget'sTheory: -Issue came up about what qualifies a child as a concrete operational thinker? -Piaget argued it had to come naturally, you can't teach it InformationProcessing AttentionandADHD -children more capable of focussing attention on relevant information and disregard irrelevant information (selective attention) -attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness -in US 3-7% of children have ADHD -boys 4 times more likely -first diagnosed in middle childhood once children enter school -cause unclear, but partly inherited --exposure to prenatal teratogens (alcohol and drugs) risk factor for ADHD -brains in children with ADHD grow slower -medications often effective -concerns about side effects are slower physical growth and higher risk of depression Memory -capacity of working memory enlarges -children first learn to use mnemonics (memory strategies such as rehearsal, organization, and elaboration) REHEARSAL -repeating information over and over ORGANIZATION -putting things into meaningful categories ELABORATION -transforming bits of information in a way that connects the, and hence makes them easier to understand -ex; the lines of a treble clef EGBDF (every good boy does fine) -middle childhood time of advance in metamemory: understanding of how memory works IntelligenceandIntelligenceTests -individual differences among children in cognitive functioning -differences focussed mainly on measurements of intelligence (capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems) TheWechslerIntelligenceTests -most widely used intelligence test -consists of 11 subtests, 6 of which are verbal subtests and 5 are performance subtests -results provide overall intelligent quotient or IQ -calculated relative to performance of other people of the same age with 100 as the median -more detailed in WISC-IV (page 300) -IQ scores good predictor of success in adulthood InfluencesonIntelligence normal distribution: typical distribution of characteristics of a population resembling a bell curve in which most cases fall near the middle and the proportions decrease at the low and high extremes -when IQ is below 70, classified as mental retardation, above 130 classified as gifted -environment influence on IQ -genetics contribute strongly to IQ -every child has genetically based reaction range for intelligence -optimal environment helps -influence of environment stronger for poor children Flynn Effect: steep rise in the median IQ score in Western Countries during the 20th century, named after James Flynn -causes of this must be environmental -better prenatal care, smaller families, more children attend pre school, also television plays factor -most persuasive explanation is the decline in infectious diseases OtherConceptionsofIntelligence:Gardner'sandSternberg'sTheories -Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences includes 8 types of intelligence -in his view, two are evaluated by intelligence tests(linguistic and logical- mathematical) -others are spatial, musical, bodily-kinethetic, naturalist, interpersonal and intrapersonal -each involves distinctive cognitive skills, which can be destroyed by damage to a certain part of the brain -people found Gardner's method too wide and was better viewed as "emotional sensitivity" rather than intelligence -Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence includes 3 forms of intelligence -analytical intelligence involves acquiring, storing, analyzing, and retrieving information -creative intelligence involves ability to combine information to produce ideas, insights, and problem-solving strategies -practical intelligence is ability to apply information to problems faced in everyday life -theory has been tested little outside the united states LearningtheCognitiveSkillsofSchool:ReadingandMathematics ApproachestoReading Phonics Approach: -breaking down words into component sounds, called phonics, then putting the phonics together into words -learning is gradually more complex Whole-Language Approach: -emphasis is on the meaning of written language in whole passages, rather then breaking them into smaller components -children encouraged to guess at the meaning of words they don't know -phonics approach more effective -once learned, substituting whole-language approach in is recommended -most children can read by grade 3 -dyslexia: leaning disability that includes difficulty sounding out letters, learning to spell words, and a tendency to misperceive the order of letters in words (very common) -learning disabilities: cognitive disorder that impedes the development of learning a specific skill such as math or reading -boys 3 times
More Less

Related notes for FRHD 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit