CHAPTER 12 The Family and the World of Work
Between 1998 and 2005, the average workweek increased from 44.6 to 46.3 hours
Health Canada has identifies four aspects of the work family connection
o Role Overload
o Work-to-family interference
o Family to work interference
o Caregiver Strain
There has been an increase in the number of women employed outside of the home
o 1941: <4% of married women had paid jobs
o 1984: married women have been more likely to be employed then unmarried
Quebec has shown the greatest increase in working mothers of young children
The greatest increase in women working outside the home has been among those
aged 25 to 44.
When one or both partners work long hours, the family experiences more stress
Individuals are members of various micro systems
o Family, Work, Community groups
Individuals must balance between their responsibilities between their home and
Care for Family Members (Childcare centers) The care of children, the disabled, ad the elderly makes demands on family
Daycare centers were established only when it was seen to benefit society
o The desire for better supervision of children
o From the need for the mothers to join the workforce.
The first daycare centers were established under various auspices in response to
problems experienced by lone mothers
o Most developed by religious organizations or volunteer women
o Seen as an emergency service to meet the needs of society.
1942 During WWII: The federal government agreed to enter cost-sharing
agreements with the provinces to provide daycare for the children of mothers
working in essential industries.
o Ontario and Quebec were the only ones to take advantage of this.
Enormous expansion of daycare centers
o Once the war was over, federal funding was discontinued and led to the
closing of many daycare centers
Childcare can be formal or informal
o Informal: not subject to government regulations
o Formal: Covered by regulations and include family daycare and daycare
Canada does not have enough regulated services to meet the childcare needs of
families o 2006: only 811 262 regulated childcare spaces for all of Canadian children
under 13, yet more than three million had mothers in the workforce.
Daycare is a provincial responsibility
Following 2006 conservatives elections:
o Allowances were given directly to families with children under six, and an
increased tax credit was given to families with a child under 18.
Children under one year are the most likely to be in a daycare center, and five year
olds, to be in preschool or before-and after- school care.
Urban children are more likely to be in a daycare center
Children from families below the low income cut off, often children of single
mothers, are also primarily in daycare centers.
In recent decades. There has been a 100% increase in days taken off work for
personal and family reasons, 1/3 of this increase is spent on caring for elderly
Women are more likely to care for the elderly.
2007: 15% of women caregivers aged 45-54 cut back on work hours. Some even
quit. Financial costs include reduced wages, savings, and pension contributions
Work And Family Stress.
Major stressors in dual-income families are the expectations of family members.
Individuals are affected by their own expectations o Get disappointed because they do not meet their expectations of a “perfect
Work and Marital Happiness.
Little connection between the fact that mothers had jobs and the marital satisfaction
they and their husbands felt.
When fathers were more involved with their children, both spouses tended to rate
their marriages happier.
If both partners are happy, women’s work status has no effect on marital disruption
If either partner is dissatisfied with the marriage the couple is more likely to
separate if the wife is employed.
When individuals worked night or rotating shifts, their marriages were at greater
risk for separation.
Physical and social stresses related to working after midnight.
Women’s perception that they carried unfair household responsibility in addition to
their jobs was connected with marital dissatisfaction.
Juggling time and energy – The Time Crunch
There doesn’t seem to be enough time and energy for individuals to accomplish all
they with to in either their work or family roles.
o May result in short-term difficulties in getting day-to-day work completed. Or
it can result in failure to achieve overall goals.
There can be difficulties over scheduling of time.
o Shift work, frequent travel, and long hours are work may mean that family
members can spend little time with one another. Women are under more stress then men in dual0earner couples, especially tho