Couples and Family Relationships Chapter 12.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1020
Tuuli Kukkonen

CHAPTER 12 The Family and the World of Work  Between 1998 and 2005, the average workweek increased from 44.6 to 46.3 hours  Health Canada has identifies four aspects of the work family connection o Role Overload o Work-to-family interference o Family to work interference o Caregiver Strain  There has been an increase in the number of women employed outside of the home o 1941: <4% of married women had paid jobs o 1984: married women have been more likely to be employed then unmarried  Quebec has shown the greatest increase in working mothers of young children  The greatest increase in women working outside the home has been among those aged 25 to 44.  When one or both partners work long hours, the family experiences more stress Ecological Perspective:  Individuals are members of various micro systems o Family, Work, Community groups  Individuals must balance between their responsibilities between their home and community life. Care for Family Members (Childcare centers)  The care of children, the disabled, ad the elderly makes demands on family members.  Daycare centers were established only when it was seen to benefit society o The desire for better supervision of children o From the need for the mothers to join the workforce.  The first daycare centers were established under various auspices in response to problems experienced by lone mothers o Most developed by religious organizations or volunteer women organizations. o Seen as an emergency service to meet the needs of society.  1942 During WWII: The federal government agreed to enter cost-sharing agreements with the provinces to provide daycare for the children of mothers working in essential industries. o Ontario and Quebec were the only ones to take advantage of this.  Enormous expansion of daycare centers o Once the war was over, federal funding was discontinued and led to the closing of many daycare centers  Childcare can be formal or informal o Informal: not subject to government regulations o Formal: Covered by regulations and include family daycare and daycare centers.  Canada does not have enough regulated services to meet the childcare needs of families o 2006: only 811 262 regulated childcare spaces for all of Canadian children under 13, yet more than three million had mothers in the workforce.  Daycare is a provincial responsibility  Following 2006 conservatives elections: o Allowances were given directly to families with children under six, and an increased tax credit was given to families with a child under 18.  Children under one year are the most likely to be in a daycare center, and five year olds, to be in preschool or before-and after- school care.  Urban children are more likely to be in a daycare center  Children from families below the low income cut off, often children of single mothers, are also primarily in daycare centers. Eldercare  In recent decades. There has been a 100% increase in days taken off work for personal and family reasons, 1/3 of this increase is spent on caring for elderly relative.  Women are more likely to care for the elderly.  2007: 15% of women caregivers aged 45-54 cut back on work hours. Some even quit. Financial costs include reduced wages, savings, and pension contributions Work And Family Stress. Expectations:  Major stressors in dual-income families are the expectations of family members.  Individuals are affected by their own expectations o Get disappointed because they do not meet their expectations of a “perfect family” Work and Marital Happiness.  Little connection between the fact that mothers had jobs and the marital satisfaction they and their husbands felt.  When fathers were more involved with their children, both spouses tended to rate their marriages happier.  If both partners are happy, women’s work status has no effect on marital disruption  If either partner is dissatisfied with the marriage the couple is more likely to separate if the wife is employed.  When individuals worked night or rotating shifts, their marriages were at greater risk for separation.  Physical and social stresses related to working after midnight.  Women’s perception that they carried unfair household responsibility in addition to their jobs was connected with marital dissatisfaction. Juggling time and energy – The Time Crunch  There doesn’t seem to be enough time and energy for individuals to accomplish all they with to in either their work or family roles. o May result in short-term difficulties in getting day-to-day work completed. Or it can result in failure to achieve overall goals.  There can be difficulties over scheduling of time. o Shift work, frequent travel, and long hours are work may mean that family members can spend little time with one another.  Women are under more stress then men in dual0earner couples, especially tho
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