Life, Health and Wellbeing
Physical Activity-All leisure and non-leisure body movement produced by skeletal muscles
resulting in an increase in energy expenditure.
Sport-Type of leisure activity that is planned, structured and competitive.
Active Living-A way of life in which physical activity is valued and integrated into daily living.
Physical Fitness-Ability to respond to routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to
cope with a sudden challenge.
Modern-Lots of sedentary activities now such as sitting. Universities do not help physical
activity because people are preoccupied with scholarly things.
Benefits-Improve mood, psychological symptoms are reduced, reduces risk of heart disease,
reduce weight and body fat, increases flexibility, increases respiratory capacity, improves
Benefits for students-Enhances academic performance, increases energy, reduces anxiety,
discharges stress, improve concentration, increases ability to handle stress and helps you sleep.
Why do students exercise? Increases physical fitness, body appearance, muscle tone improves,
increases strength and as an accomplishment of goals.
Why don’t students exercise?-feel tired, hard work, no time or no support, no opportunity or
just don’t like it.
In Motion-an organization that tries to get Canadians active. Emphasizes the simple things you
can do such as walk, bike, use the stairs, visit the arboretum, set an active lifestyle for yourself
now and in the future.
Men vs. Women-Men’s bodies are more effective at transporting oxygen to muscles and on
average men have slightly more muscle mass and less body fat.
Bowlby and Co-All humans develop attachments early in life and the need for attachment
continues throughout life. Neurobiology shows this. Attachment is important from cradle to
grave. There is a connection between early attachment and later adulthood and he looked mostly
at mother child relationships and conducted in “Mother blaming” now we discuss caregivers and
Attachments- Provide the bond that sustains love relationships and leads to the creation of a safe
haven and a secure base for relationships (positive attachments). Mostly between parent and
child, siblings, couples and friendships.
-The building blocks of attachment are acceptance, emotional accessibility and physical and
Strange situation Test- Mary Ainsworth-sets an attractive setting with the observer, mother
leaves and then returns. Look especially at what happens when the mother leaves and when she
returns and the child’s reaction determines attachment. Shows secure attachment if the child cries
when the mother leaves but is soothed when the mother comes back.
-Adults feel same distress but have a level of knowledge to know what typically happens; we
develop strong bonds when we go against our culture and express our emotions and
vulnerability. Touch is also very important in respect to responsiveness but our culture doesn’t
enforce that. Attachments in Crisis-Attachment needs are heightened when there is a traumatic event, lack of
responsiveness leads to injured and insecure relationships. Crisis can bring people closer or drive
us apart and if people experience a crisis together both need things so no needs get met.
Insecure Attachment-Insecurity, stress, physical illness, lack of trust, leads to fear and sense of
Hazen and Shaver-Draws a connection between attachment patterns early in life and 3
attachment styles. 1) Secure with 55% of adults; 2) Avoidant 25% (Ignores mother and doesn’t
care) and 3) Anxious Ambivalent 20% (don’t settle, clingy).
Bartholomew and Horowitz-Developed a 4 category model of adult attachment.
Secure-Low attachment anxiety and low attachment avoidant. Happy to see them when come
home, ok when they need to leave. Sense of separateness and togetherness and fluidity between
then. Feel ok about then being gone but will miss them
Preoccupied- high attachment anxiety and low attachment avoidant. Always want to be with
them, scared when not together. Not comfortable with them leaving, constant worrying and
Avoidant dismissing- Low attachment anxiety but high attachment avoidant. Lead separate live,
not really interested and don’t care.
Avoidant Fearful- High attachment anxiety and high attachment avoidant. No outward sense of
being cut off but a sense of withdrawal and fear of being hurt.
Attachment Anxiety-How much a person worries their partner will not be available.
Attachment Avoidant-Degree a person distrusts a partners good will and tendencies to maintain
an emotional and behavioural distance from the partner.
Stability of styles-Longitudinal studies show that attachment styles are consistent over time,
however, major life evens may change the attachment style.
John Gottman-Studies what makes marriage succeed/fail in couples by measuring successful
and failing relationships. They had a “love lab” where they collected physical and emotional
responses. Can predict with 90% accuracy whether a relationship will succeed or fail within first
few minutes. Sense of we-ness is positive in a relationship. Avoid 4 horsemen of the Apocalypse.
-Amount of positive affect during conflict and a positive view of partner when fighting is the key
to a successful relationship. No evidence to find that anger is a destructive emotion.
4Horsemen of the Apocalypse-Criticism of flaws in personality (You’re not supposed to do that),
defensiveness (None of your business), contempt (talking to a partner as a superior, moral
judgment of partner) and stonewalling (ignoring or avoiding them/their point of view).
Solvable Problems-Conflicts that can be resolved; tend to be less intense.
Perpetual Problems-Will always be a part of the couple relationship, often involve unmet needs
or dreams and tend to make the couple furious with each other.
Predicting divorce-Harsh start up to an argument, 4 horsemen of the apocalypse, flooding
(overwhelmed by emotion), body languag