Chapter 14 notes.docx

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Agnieszka Woznia

Chapter 14 notes - Children with physical disabilities or other health impairments are those whore physical limitations or health problems interfere with school attendance or learning to such an extent that special services, training, equipment, materials, or facilities are required - Characteristics of children with physical disabilities are extremely varied Congenital anomalies defects born with or they may acquire exceptionalities through accident or disease after birth  Some physical disabilities are mild and transitory, others are profound and progressive, ending in total incapacitation and early death  There are 3 categories of physical disabilities: orthopedic, neuromotor impairments and musculoskeletal disorders  Acute: very serious or severe but with treatment it will resolve, person can recover  Chronic: one that is ongoing, it does not resolve; example: cerebral palsy  Episodic: recurs, but person is able to function normally most the time, happens in successive periods, for example: asthma or epilepsy  Progressive: becomes more and more serious with time, usually involving more and more complication or deterioration; example: muscular dystrophy Chronic conditions defined by Stats Canada (2002)  conditions that limit the kind or amount of activities an individual with one or more chronic health condition or disease – includes individuals with health and physical disabilities - Fewer mortalities among individuals with severe or multiple exceptionalities and those with severe and chronic illnesses/injuries due to improvements in medical care, doesn’t mean that there is a lesser percentage of people who have these disabilities Neuromotor impairments - Caused by injury to the brain or spinal cord, it also affects the ability to move parts of one’s body (motor impairment) – associated with injury to the brain before, during or after birth Traumatic brain injury (TBI)  injury to the brain, resulting in total or partial exceptionality or psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language, attention, reasoning, memory, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory or perceptual and motor disabilities, psychosocial behaviour, physical functions, information processing, or speech Brain injury can happen from a variety of non-traumatic causes as well as: hypoxia (reduced oxygen to the brain, near drowning), infection of the brain/brain linings, stroke, tumour, metabolic disorder (liver/kidney disease), or toxic chemicals or drugs ** when a child’s NVS is damaged, no matter what the cause, muscular weakness or paralysis is almost always one of the symptoms due to this, they cannot move around as well as other can so they require special accommodations for their exceptionalities Cerebral Palsy – not a disease, contagious or progressive - Considered part of a syndrome that includes motor dysfunction, psychological dysfunction, seizures, and emotional or behavioural disorders due to brain damage - CP refers to paralysis, weakness, lack of coordination, and/or other motor dysfunction bc of damage to the child’s brain before it has matured - No cure Causes/types: - Anything that can damage the brain during its development can cause CP (oxygen dep., poisoning, cerebral bleeding, or direct trauma = possible causes) - More often seen to children born to mothers in poor socio-economic circumstances ( bad pre and postnatal care, malnutrition, enviro hazards) Quadriplegia  all 4 limbs involved Paraplegia  only legs involved Spasticity  stiffness or tenseness of muscles and inaccurate voluntary movement Choreoathetoid abrupt, involuntary movements and difficulty maintaining balance Atonic  floppiness or lack of muscle tone CP is a developmental disability – multi-disabling condition – more complex than just motor disability alone - Multifaceted exceptionalities - IQ can be normal or even above normal but general population is said to be lower then average for children with CP Epilepsy – seizure disorder Seizure – an abnormal discharge of electrical energy in certain brain cells – effect may be loss of consciousness, involuntary movements, or abnormal sensory phenomena – effects of seizures depend on location of the cells in which the discharge starts and how far it spreads Epilepsy – recurrent seizures – occur more often in children with developmental disabilities than in children without Causes/types: - Can be caused by any type of damage to the brain - Most common cause is hypoxia – lack of oxygen to brain, low blood sugar, infections, and physical trauma - Educators should note that seizure differ along some of the following 6 dimensions: o Duration – time they last o Frequency – how frequently they occur o Onset – what sets them off o Movements – may cause minor motor symptoms or major convulsions o Causes – many are unknown o Associated exceptionalities – may be linked with exceptionalities o Control – drugs to stop them Among children with epilepsy, most have avg or higher intelligence unless they have other exceptionalities - Ignorance about seizures and first aid are the most common misconceptions about epilepsy - General and special educators are expected to make sure there is no ignorance and prejudice toward these people - Special educators are expected to be able to handle people who have epilepsy, and to record the length of the seizure as well as the type of activity the child was engaged in before the seizure occurred (these things help physicians treat their patients) - Most with epilepsy do not have learning disabilities (some do), but most have behavioural and/or emotional disorders Spina Bifida + other spinal cord injuries - Neurological damage can affect only the spinal cord in some instances and leave the brain unharmed - Can occur before or after birth, it affects the person’s ability to move below the site of the injury Spina bifida  congenital midline defect which results from failure of the bony spinal column to close completely during fetal development – may occur anywhere from head to lower end of spine - Surgery in early infancy can be performed to close spinal opening but cannot repair the damage to the nerves - Causes = unknown  but one of the most common physical disabilities by birth defects - One of the only differences in spina bifida and other spinal injuries is that the child/person has to get accustomed to the exceptionality - Educational implications are varied bc there are many types of spinal cord injuries depending on where they are effected and what they are able to do/control - Monitored carefully due to lack of sensation they might have in some parts of their body – they may need to be adjusted throughout the school day aswell - Teachers should also know what to do for ‘clean intermittent catheterization’ Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Disorders 2 of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in children and youth are: Muscular dystrophy  hereditary disease, characterized by progressive weakness caused by degeneration of muscle fibres – no cure Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis  potentially debilitating disease in which the muscles and joints are affected – cause/cure unknown - Scoliosis can also affect musculoskeletal system - Special education is necessary to provide the child with proper mobility Other conditions affecting health or physical ability Asthma  increasingly common lung disease – episodic inflammation of the air passages – person has difficulty in breathing – unpredictable condition – can get be severe or go away Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD)  maternal consumption of alcohol – most common syndrome involving malformations and intellectual impairments – 1 in 1000 live births  More children die in accidents then by childhood diseases each year combined Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)  caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – acquire neurological problems, intellectual impairment, cerebral palsy, seizures, and emotional or behavioural disorders - Also a high chance of neglect and abuse after birth and also for being born with AIDS from mothers who substance abuse Prevention of Physical Disabilities - Prevention through actions such as wearing a seat belt, not driving under the influence, careless storage of drugs and other toxic substances, careless storage of firearms or use of substances while pregnant can avoid many exceptionalities - Preventing teenagers from having children would lead to putting a stop in premies, or children born with low-birth-rate – resulting in a high risk of psychological and physical problems – inadequate prenatal care and inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy - Preventing abuse in children and teens is important in decreasing physical disabilities – teachers play a big part in detecting/reporting it Psychological and Behavioural Characteristics Academic Achievements - Next to impossible to make a valid generalized statement about academic achievement of children with physical disabilities bc they vary so widely in the nature and severity of their conditions - Many students with physical disabilities have erratic school attendance due to hospital visits, bed rest and so on Personality characteristics - There are no certain types of personalities in those who have physical disabilities – children/
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