Chapter Nine.docx

7 Pages
88 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 2110
Professor
Agnieszka Woznia
Semester
Winter

Description
1 Chapter Nine/Unit Eight Textbook – Chapter Nine (Cognitive Theories/Factors)  The cognitive approach emphasizes what a person does  how events perceived, expectations formed every day  George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory  Constructs: psychologically meaningful cognitive categories  unique and personal   bipolar  more accessible end = emergent pole; other end = implicit pole   2 ends also known as likeness pole and contrast pole   implicit pole may sometimes become submerged: person becomes cognitively preoccupied/obsessed with theme reflecting emergent pole of construct  Constructs also differ in extent accessible to conscious awareness  Preverbal constructs: subconscious cognitive categories likely involved in “tip-of-tongue” phenomenon that occurs when you almost but cannot quite put something into words  also known as construing  Submerged constructs: one or both ends of construct not available for conscious reflection/verbalization  Suspended constructs: previously accessible construct now forgotten b/c of current events  similar to repression  The Person as Scientist  Kelly used metaphor “each person is a scientist who is motivated to make as much sense as possible out of life events”  3 conditions undermine ability to form new constructs:  1) threat: specific construct part of higher order construct incompatible with another higher order construct necessary for living  e.g. death constructs threatening b/c incompatible with constructs representing life  2) too preoccupied with old constructs to form new, representative ones  e.g. someone with intense paranoia continues to reflect on the past as evidence of something negative, when the evidence doesn’t truly exist  3) no laboratory: some people lack access to situations allowing them to test and update their constructs  Failure to update constructs results in hostility  Hostile people frequently at odds with environment  distressed and frustrated by inability to make sense of world  Constructive alternativism: 2 people can have different interpretations of same event  can also refer to changes in how same person interprets reoccurring situation/event over time  Kelly’s Corollaries  Corollary: statement following readily/easily from theory  in this instance, the specific principles emerging from Kelly’s theory 2  Fundamental postulate: a person’s processes psychologically channelized by ways they anticipate events  sees people being very future-oriented  e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger’ self- efficacy in his autobiography  Construction corollary: person anticipates events by construing their replications  reflects notion that constructs exist b/c help us predict what will happen in future  tied to anticipation of real events  Individuality corollary: differences between people; people differ from each other in their construction of events  includes observation that individuality stems in part from culture  Organization corollary: each person characteristically evolves construction system including ordinal relationships between constructs  created due to desire to easily anticipate/understand future events  Dichotomy corollary: composed of finite number of dichotomous constructs  each theme represented by endpoints of dichotomy; sometimes endpoints polar opposites  dichotomy distinguishes term construct from concept  Choice corollary: person selects option in dichotomized corollary anticipated to provide best possibility for extending/defining construct system  Range corollary: convenient for anticipating finite range of events  suggests each construct has range of convenience: all things that person with construct feels apply to construct  Experience corollary: change in construction system as person successfully construes replication of events  personal constructs from childhood different than adulthood  Modulation corollary: evolution of construction system  variation in construction system limited by permeability of constructs in construction system  Fragmentation corollary: person can simultaneously use 2/more construction subsystems even though they may be logically incompatible  necessary for times when person acting differently than previous behaviour  Commonality corollary: similarities between people  has implications for how culture interpreted  Sociality corollary: being from same culture not enough to ensure social harmony  essential to understand how world is perceived by someone else  Jack Adams-Webber  Cognitive complexity: reflects structure/interrelation of cognitions rather than actual content  Also known as integrative complexity: reflects whether cognitions differentiated (person recognizes 2 or more perspectives applying to issue) or integrated (person recognizes interconnectedness of perspectives)  Familiarity hypothesis: individual’s constructs relative to others they interact with frequently/intimately more complex than people they interact with less frequently  Roles and Fixed Role Therapy  Role: psychological process and ongoing pattern of behaviour reflecting person’s understanding of ways of thinking of people associated with  Tied to person’s construct system  Primary focus in therapy = client’s self-construct and how client sees self as different than other people  main goal of therapy = improve/strengthen self-construct so become better “scientist” for events involving self 3  Fixed-role therapy: main treatment advocated by Kelly  client must act role for specific period of time  believed to facilitate better understanding of how other people view things, examine self from different perspective   Allows identification with constructs of other people, try different way of interpreting reality   worked with boy who believed he was Arnold Schwarzenegger/The Terminator  Actor-observer attribution bias: blame negative things on other people’s personal characteristics, but more likely to make attributions to situational factors when in same position  Roles and the Person-Situation Interaction  Cattell suggested person-situation interaction needs to be expanded to consider life roles  specifically, a model including both roles and affective states as “modulators” of link between personality/behavioural responses  Also observed that no behavioural act occurs without being influenced by a role  The Role Construct Repertory Test and Repertory Grids  Test requires participants to identify 15 people according to 15 specific labels  Then identify how in a group of 3, 1 person is different than the other 2  One end of construct = how liked and successful person deemed similar, other end = way disliked person is different  Called a grid b/c possible to geometrically represent constructs once various groups identified and described  Once constructs identified with Repertory Grids, they’re analyzed to see if can be grouped into theme  e.g. analysis of “culture-shocked marriages”  “culture-shocked marriage”: intercultural marriage resulting from couple meeting/marrying while man temporary resident in foreign country  partner experiences adjustment difficulties if move to husband’s homeland  see Maria and Mr. H pg. 348  Self-characterization: writing description of yourself from perspective of favourable 3 -person observer  Kelly’s Contemporary Influence  Stimulated area of psychology known as constructivist psychology  Controversy over whether Kelly is cognitive or humanistic theorist  Humanist due to: 1) emphasis on personal choice; 2) emphasis placed on creation of personal meaning; 3) general disdain expressed for anti-humanistic diagnostic traditions  Evaluation of Kelly  Provided one of the first purely cognitive theories of personality  promote focus on unique individual as whole person/emphasis on personal constructs  Also invented Role Construct Repertory Test  However  Focused more on structure of personality than content of personality  Didn’t look at personality from a developmental perspective  Issues surrounded applying theory to people who suffer from extreme forms of irrationality  e.g. boy who thought he was The Terminator  Dichotomy emphasized may not apply across all of person’s constructs 4  Kurt Lewin’s Cognitive and Field Theory of Personality  Known for his Gestalt focus  Gestalt: signifies coherent whole  if we want to understand how something is perceived,
More Less

Related notes for FRHD 2110

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit