Measuring under nutrition: very difficult to measure under nutrition, very expensive if you want to measure it right. Nutritional status of an individual: input- dietary assessment. what do they eat, outcome- clinical assessment/biochemical assessment/anthropometric assessment. Dietary assessment: assess nutruent intake, approaches- dietary recall/dietary record, weighed/unweighed, replicate studies, food frequency questionnaire, comparison with dietary standards. Clinical assessment: physical signs of nutritional disorders- looking at ppls eyes/take temp, reliability: clinical skills, manifestation of symptoms in individuals, problems, sub-clinical deficiency, multi-factorial diseases. Biochemical assessment: examination of bodily fluids: urine/blood, focus on metabolic changes accompanying nutritional disorders, can assess sub-clinical deficiencies, high cost. Under nut. and physical development: energy and protein critical to human development, key distinction: acute under nut and chronic under nut, accounting for other factors: genetic/environmental, measurement of over-nutrition. Physical effects of undernutrition: low height for age (stunting, low weight for height (wasting, low weight for age (underweight, body fat composition.