Chpt 1 & Chpt 2.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Food Agricultural and Resource Economics
FARE 1300
Julio Mendoza

Leah Cornblum FARE1300 Tue. Jan. 8/13 page 1-4 Introduction *estimated 6 million children die annually from hunger = 1 death every 5 seconds *estimated 13% of the world’s population suffer from undernutrition *not all hunger is fatal *most hunger related deaths are among preschoolers, next are pregnant women Thu. Jan. 10/13 page 7-21 Part One: Malnutrition: What Are the Facts? Famines *still have undernutrition without famines *famines – localized, temporary, and severe food shortages >result of natural disaster and poor policy response THE IRISH POTATO FAMINE, 1840 *led to 1.3 million Irish emigrates to the US which changed the culture (St. Patty’s Day) *2/3 of Irish people were illiterate, over 1/3 lived in mud houses *most labourers paid rent for their land and/or worked for the landlord *became dependent on potatoes (lots of nutrition) *potato blight – fungus that causes potatoes to turn black and rotten in the ground *from 1845-1849 it got worse, destroyed nearly the entire crop *famine-related deaths ranged from 290,000 – 1,250,000, pre-famine population 8 million *needed an appropriate policy response, Ireland governed by Britain *policy decisions fall into three categories: >technology policy – what the government should do to encourage better scientific understanding of the causes and consequences of the potato blight >trade policy – what the government should do to increase food imports or reduce food exports at the time of a famine >poverty alleviation policy – what the government should do to help the poor *tried a technological fix but nothing came of it *Corn Laws – restricted imports of food into Ireland (wanted repeal) *Ireland lacked sufficient food to stave off the famine *government policies included: >importation of grain from the US >“work houses” where poor families could live >public work programs to provide incomes for jobless >soup kitchens to distribute prepared food *those policies financed through a tax on Irish landlords *amount of tax determined by how many poor households lived on the landlord’s property *landlords evicted tenants and destroyed tenant cottages >opposite of good the tax was supposed to do >over the years landlord/tenant system died and farmers owned their own land FAMINES CREATED BY GOVERNMENT POLICIES *famine can occur in laissez-faire places as well as those that have state socialism The Ukraine Famine, 1932-1933 *Stalin introduced a policy of compulsory collectivism of agriculture; all productive assets were to be aggregated into 250,000 collective state farms *difficulties in obtaining machinery and managing transportation of goods *farmers resisted, slaughtered animals rather than surrender them *resistance high in the Ukraine because they cultivated their own land than Russian peasants *Soviet government wanted to maintain food supplies for urban industrial sector while turning agriculture into a collective system *in Ukraine, farmers given a quota of grain to be shipped, if rejected would be forced to send entire crop *6-8 million Ukrainians died, pre famine population of 34 million >compared to concentration camps *this famine was man-made The Chinese “Great Leap Forward” Famine, 1951-1961 *most destructive famine *government insisted farmers undertake untested production methods based on unorthodox science *China seeking to establish economic independence from Soviet Union so food exports increased to repay debts *poor weather, 15-20% of agricultural land was hit by natural calamity *agricultural production decreased *higher mortality if policy caused famine, geographical differences if weather problems caused the famine *2/3 famine death were policy mistakes, 1/3 poor weather *30 million dead *f
More Less

Related notes for FARE 1300

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.