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GEOG 1220 (115)

Lecture two Sept 13 16 18 20 2013

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GEOG 1220
Lorne Bennett

Historical context of Human-Environmental Interactions Introduction: modern society is causing these environmental impacts “ ancestors successful practising ecologists” Early humans: 1. tools: could utilise objects 2. fire: learning and evolution 3. ecological knowledge: knowing how to survive within the last 10,000 years there has been a change . 99% of human existence were as hunter- gathers. Evolution of Tools: ● quartz ● obsidian ● copper ● bronze ● iron ● steele Agricultural revolution: 1. Early stone age/ lower paleolithic: a. savagery b. gathering c. hunting d. highly mobile populations 2. Upper paleolithic: a. barbaric b. control of wild plant and animal resources c. more sophisticated hunter-gatherers d. populations still mobile e. more use of fire 3. Neolithic : a. replacement of wild species to domesticated plants and animals b. permanent settlements c. pottery production d. food processing equipement e. trade 4. Bronze age: a. more technology b. intensification of agriculture c. the excess of food d. trade networks e. usage of fire for various activites 1. Impact of fire: a. tasmania( grass, heather, shrubs) hunter gathers burnings to expand the habitat of species they would use as a food source. b. new zealand(brucken fern) burned forest for their food supply (transforming their environment to enhance/ multiply food supple) c. england (hart/deer) burn forest to increase hart. England’s wet climate caused peat moss to occur where burnings were. 2. impact of hunting: a. pleistocene overkill (2.5 million years ago) → holocene extinction of large mammals. killing of 200 genera herbivores. b. humans are and was an invasive species, now neitralized 3. impact of gathering: a. animals: auroch → cow, asian moufillon → sheep Agricultural Revolution: Types ofAgricultural Societies pastoral nomadism: in semi-arid landscapes environmental impacts: ● reduce vitality of land ● overusage: unable to reproduce enough resources to return to the same spot ● cultural value: people would base status off of how many cattle you had, carrying capacity was low for semi-arid landscapes solutions: ● provide alternative sou
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