GEOG 1220 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Buffalo Jump, Lower Paleolithic, Overgrazing
Early humans: tools- could grasp and manipulate objects. Japanese crows move walnuts under pathways of wheels to crush. Its too malleable, would not hold its edge. Bronze (tin+copper)- much durable, but hard to find. Steel (carbon+iron) the best: fire (at least 700 000 years ago- 1. 4 million?) Like 7 species of human at one point. Sapiens won: ecological knowledge-recognize signs of food, water. History of taking much more than we needed to survive. Head smashed in buffalo jump- made use of cliff to eat bison-up to 200 at a time. 99% of our time on earth as hunter-gatherers. 1)lower paleolithic or early stone age (>10 000 years b. p. ) Manipulative control of wild plants and animal resources. More sophisticated hunter-gatherers populations still movile, but more campsites. Gradual replacement of wild species and hunter gatherer strategies with domesticated plants and animals. Lag time in transition still many hunter-gatherer societies when some parts were agricultural.