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Lecture 3

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GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

GEOG* 3050 Development and the City Lecture 1 (January 10, 2013) REGIONAL OVERVIEWS OF AFRICA, ASIA, AND LATIN AMERICA Africa Demographics - 1 billion people in all of Africa - Young population (half of all Africans are under 25 years) - Relatively high birth rates (compared to Europe and Canada) - Highest infant mortality rates - Relatively high death rates (more to the south) - Lower well being/income (range within the continent) Social Context - Colonial languages (Arabic, French, English, Swahili, Portuguese, Spanish etc.) - Diverse ethnic backgrounds (some continuity) - Similarity between ethnics and language - Colonial legacies (problematic, conflicts between ethnic groups, between resources, religion etc.) Economy - Resource extraction - Primary commodities (Agriculture, oil & gas) o Fishing, forestry etc. (Resource extraction) o High reliance of primary economic activities  Paid laborers  Cotton, cocoa, mining (gold, diamonds, copper, oil) o Increasing reliance explain social context - Secondary sector (what you make from primary resources) o Industrial activity (15% of population relies on it) o Least industrialized continent compared to the rest of world Political Issues - Many countries taking over their government - Reliance of democracy - African union (Shared political voice, sameness of colonial experience) - Conflicts resulting in refugees (huge movements) and internally displaced people Urbanized Population - 39.6 % urban (compared to the 80% of Canada being urban) o Anticipated that the rate will rise to 61.6% in 2050 - Major Cities o Cairo, Egypt (11.2 million people) o Lagos, Nigeria (11.2 million people) o Kinshasa, DRC (8.8 million people) o Khartoum, Sudan (4.6 million people) Asia Demographics - Huge (3.9 Billion people)- 60% of the world - Relatively high birthrates - Not a whole lot of high infant mortality rates (higher in other places such as Afghanistan) - Middle death rates (high mortality in Afghanistan and in Russia- high rates of alcoholism) - In Japan/Taiwan- affluent places. High incomes in middle east. Variety (lower in India) o Some extreme poverty, but other end of spectrum as well Economy - Manufacturing, Agriculture - Pockets of relatively high reliance on Primary economic activities (China, India etc.) - Emerging centers in the Emerging Secondary (industrial) centers (on the coast of China- easy to export goods, and Shanghai) - Specialization in factory work (goods & services, information, banking etc.) o Urban centers known for this - A lot of poverty Social Context - High diversity in language and religion (Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, etc.) o A lot of different cultures, world views (place matters) Politics - Military dictatorship, communism, democracy etc. Urbanized Population - 41.7 % o Assimilated to be 64.7% in 2050 - Major Cities o Tokyo, Japan (37.2 million people) o Delhi, India (22.7 million people) o Shanghai, China (20.2 million people) o Mumbai, India (19.7 million people) o Beijing, China (15.6 million people) Latin America and the Caribbean Demographics - 600 million in total (about half the whole population) - Places with relatively high birth rates - Indian regions have relatively higher infant mortality rates - Slightly higher rates of death rates - More affluence in oil producing areas (higher well-being) o Extreme poverty in places like Haiti Economy - Primary resource extractions o Forestry, mining, some manufacturing, coffee, soy beans, sugar etc. (colonial) (agriculture) o Oil, metal mining o Much lower reliance in latin America - Industrial (secondary) activities o Important (goods and services, banking and information (laws and rules that were encouraged to bring offshore banking)) - Tourism is very important Social Context - Spanish, Portuguese, French languages - Hybridity is a big deal in Latin America - Indigenous people tend to be poorer - Religions: Catholicism Politics - American involvement o Promoting democracy (sometimes violently) o Extremes (dictatorship etc.) - Political left (Socialist) but persistence of the right (conservatives) o Clashes in the cities Urbanized Population - 79.3% (Very high) - Goes in hand and hand with primary activities o Projected to get up to 88.8% in 2050 - Major Cities o Sao Paolo, Brazil (19.9 million people) o Mexico City, Mexico (20.4 million people) o Buenos Aries, Argentina (13.5 million people) o Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (12.0 million people) “Cities reflect a sociospatial dialectic, a two-way process in which people modify urban spaces while at the same time they are conditioned by the spaces in which they live and work.” - Cities are human habitats “City structures reflect their surrounding economic, demographic, cultural and political backgrounds.” - Understanding the lives of people in particular places THEME: Trend of urbanization - Urbanization is shaping the world’s modern landscapes o 2008: the first time in history that 50%+ of the world lives in urban areas o 2030: 5 billion urban dwellers projected, with urban growth concentrated in Africa and Asia o Increasing urbanization of poverty  Many poor people moving to cities o Migration as a major force of urbanization in the Global South/periphery o Rise of megacities o New growth mostly in smaller towns and cities - Historically, urbanization has been a hallmark of economic growth and progress - What happens when urbanization outstrips “development”? o People moving to the cities have to build their own low-income houses etc. Too many people - Increasingly, “development” problems are urban problems Mega Cities - Urban agglomerations with > 10 million people - Very large cities characterized by high centrality within their national economy - Tend to be similar to other megacities Terminology… - Developing world, developed world - First, Second, Third World - Less industrialized world, industrialized world - Global North and Global South - Least developed countries (LDCs); Highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs) o Poverty (HIV AIDS etc.) - BRICS o Middle income, emerging economy Key concepts and themes - Urban structure, urban form, infrastructure - Social and cultural dynamics of cities in the Global South - Urban economic change in the Global South - Colonialism, neocolonialism, colonial legacies - “Development” GEOG 3050 Development and the City Lecture 2 Theories of Urbanization: Measuring and Monitoring How cities Arose in the Global South -Ancient urban civilizations -first were Egypt, Greece, Turkey, China (BC) -later on were Aztec, Inca, Africa etc. (AD) -the part of the world that we consider the Global South now were some of the largest cities in the Year 100-1500 -Colonial presences (colonial cities and gateway cities) -Economic specialization as a development strategy” urban effect -Theories of modern urbanization in the Global South Colonial City Structures -colonialism began in 1492 (a little bit earlier) 1) Newly created cities: Mumbai, Kolkata, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, Manila, Nairobi 2) Adapted cities (adding to existing cities: Delhi, Shanghai, Tunis -adapt, extend, transform -replaced and covered past civilizations; Tenochtitlan and Mexico City -European influence -Functions: colonial administration and commerce, military security, and these exist directly beside indigenous commerce and residence -traditional markets etc. were sustained but colonial influences expand on it and this can be seen in the structure of the city -colonial cities served as centres for European political administration, exercises of discipline and justice, hygiene/sanitation, cultural dissemination, and economic concentration -These were usually trading posts and admin centres, rather than centres of manufacturing and production. When former colonies gained their independence, many of these cities maintained their pre- industrial character, although local citizens were substituted for European administration Colonial architecture Mumbai train station (left side of the screen) -gargoyles -if there weren’t people pulling a cart it would look like a building from Europe Jakarta (right side of screen) -Dutch architecture Gateway Cities -provide connections between regions Economic specialization -historically, agriculture or other types of extractive primary sector economic specialization in the Global South -concentrated export-oriented urban forms -Now, other specialization too: -manufacturing -import substitution (mostly early stage industrialization; mixed results) e.g Indian didn’t want to send cotton to England to be spun just for it to be spent back -production for international markets; export processing zones, maquiladoras, etc. -tourism, and some other tertiary (services, sales) and quinary (R & D) sector specialization A note on urbanization in the Global North -effects of extractive colonization on the cities of the Global North -increased wealth for urban dev. In Europe -historically, urbanization in the Global North accompanied industrialization (not so in many parts of the Global South) Persistence of Indigenous Urbanism -not all urban systems in the Global South are relics of colonialism: -China -North Africa -Parts of the Middle East Theories of Urban Growth in the Global South (Potter and Lloyd-Evans, 1998) 1) Classical-traditional approaches -dualistic economic structures (underdeveloped indigenous sector and modern developed sector) -Prescription is “modernization” and “polarization reversal” (trickle-down) -Perceived need to invest in economic “take-off” -investing money in infrastructure, industrial manufacturing -multiple tones of this approach 2) Historical approaches: -teleological explanations for urban structure and resulting polarization -narrative and situation-based -refer to figure on slide -stage 1- all centres separate, stage 2- one centre becomes prominent, stage 3 and 4- main centre and sub centres but are not independent of one another -Global South is in stage 1 or 2 Concentric zone models -A New and Improved Model of Latin American City Structure -does not just expand in concentric rings, it has transect lines 3) “Radical” political economy/dependency approaches -dependency school -World Systems Theory: -seeks to explain and describe the interdependence of different regions -core, semi-periphery, periphery, external -criticisms: 1. Dominance of “system” scale, 2. Developmentalist, 3. Capital-centric -relevance of this throery to urbanization? -cities arise out of capital accumulation and surplus -cities serve elites (still true?) -urban metabolism: goods and people are imported from the hinterlands, and waste is exported. Wider metabolism of intercity trade 4) Bottom-up paradigm and postmodern approaches -rejection of traditional notions of “development” -advocates for increasing self-sufficiency and development of rural centres -cities are understood as sites of extractive and unequal exchange with the Global North -E.g. China and Cuba…communism (historically….but now?) Modern Peripheral/Global South city structures -central business area, sometimes administration -high rates of growth and urbanization -overtaxed infrastructure systems -Shantytowns and affluent residential islands Urban Primacy -one major city has a high level of dominance in terms of population and functions -four-city index- ratio of population of largest city to sum of populations for four next largest cities= results in economic dominance Rank Size Rule -based in empirical observations -A city’s population should be equal to the population of the largest city divided by its rank Common features: -megacities -internal urban inequality -relatively high levels of regional inequality (eg. Between urban and regional areas) Trends: -globalization (affluent and non-affluent versions) -multicultralism Increasing consumerism -increasing presence of international capital -global convergence and divergence -people creating localized communities (divergence) -homogenization (convergence) Population Growth -natural increase and migration -UN (2010) -total world pop will increase by 2.3 bil between 2009 and 2050 -urban population will increase by 2.8 bil between 2009 and 2050 -rural areas will lose 0.5 bil people between 209 and 2050 Urban effect of migration: -migration creates urban diversity in terms of ethnicity and social class. New Social relation but can also result in tension and conflict -migration can lead to overurbanization (condition whereby cities can’t provide enough work and housing for their residents) -migration can have health implications for urban environments -remittances from urban centres economically fuel smaller towns Measuring and Monitoring Urbanization -issues with data collection -definitions of what counts as an urban area (city size, city boundaries) -lack of census data -myths that circulate about urbanization: -African urbanization? -urban primacy and its causes? -measuring poverty with the $1 a day standard?- so unrealistic -data on health and social outcomes? -lack of data inappropriate policy responses -need to look beyond the numbers -step back and ask bigger questions GEOG*3050 January 23, 2013 Lecture 3 Infrastructure: Water, Waste and Transportation Infrastructure - Water and sanitation - Energy - Transportation - Waste o Overview o Case studies o Issues and challenges in infrastructure provision In cities, it is a lifeline. Themes: - Public, private, or community-based provision models - Financing - Health and environmental implications - Technological change o What is expected, the capacities etc. - Politicization of access o Social side - Cultural aspects o There is not one size fits all solution Water and sanitation - Improvements (who and how do we know if it’s sufficient) - Millennium Development Goals Report 2011: o Every region has made progress in improving access to clean drinking water. An estimated 1.1 billion people in urban areas and 723 million people in rural areas gained access to an improved drinking water source over the period 1990-2008. Eastern Asia registered the largest gains in drinking water coverage-from 69 per cent in 1990 to 86 percent in 2008. Sub-Saharan Africa nearly doubled the number of people using an improved drinking water source-from 252 million in 1990 to 492 million in 2008 - “Political stability has heavily influenced progress in improving access to WSS service with low- income stable countries outperforming low-income fragile and resource-rich countries - A note on financing and the role of public institutions: o “The shift in how aid is delivered, from donor-driven projects to country-led programmatic approaches, has strengthened the serve delivery pathways that translate inputs (finance) into outcomes (coverage) anchored in core government systems-greatly extending their reach and rate of implementation capacity.” - However, poor, rural populations remain at a disadvantage in accessing clean drinking water o Inequality in urban drinking area - Millennium Development Goals Report 2011: o “Advances in sanitation often bypass the poor and those living in rural areas. Over 2.6 billion people still lack access to flush toilets or other forms of improved sanitation. And where progress has occurred it has largely bypassed the poor. An analysis of trends over the period 1995-2008 for three countries in Southern Asia shows that improvements in sanitation disproportionately benefited the better off, while sanitation coverage for the poorest 40 percent of households hardly increased.” Case studies: Water and sanitation - Zawahri et al 2011: o Water and sanitation in the MENA o Politics of measuring and assessment o When are water and sanitation considered “improved”?  Access, water quality, affordability (long-term is big part), environmental sustainability… o Pricing (whether provision is public or private) o Incentives for governments to overstate improvements and mask local service inequalities o Data collection: household surveys and assessment questionnaires vs. testing o Water quality is not as improved as we think it is - Sanitation programs in India: o Joshi et al 2011:  Dignity as a basic sanitation need (specificities due to gender, poverty, cultural needs)  Privacy, hygiene, etc.  Why are there inequities in sanitation provision?  Cost, technology, lack of demand – i.e. “ignorance”?  Residents of informal settlements need housing tenure in order to invest in household sanitation  Many externally imposed sanitation programs are not sufficiently sanitary (e.g. hand washing campaigns)  There are people who are “willing but unable to pay” for sanitation service; they are not ignorant of their sanitation needs, but are too poor to pay - Sanitation programs in India: o Chaplin 2011:  Urban India faces the limitations of segmented colonial city layouts, poorly financed municipalities that are unable to manage growth, and a middle class who monopolizes state funding for sanitation (more ability to lobby, responsiveness)  Community-NGO partnerships have led to some successful examples of building community toilets  Poor people need to improve their political capacity to advocate for themselves in order to receive better infrastructure - Free water in South Africa: o Muller 2008:  In 1996, a Constitutional “right to sufficient water” was established  Policy decision to prove all South Africans with free basic water-contentious.
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