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Lecture

Hist02 Hundred Years War and War of the Roses.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Sept.  11.  2012   Early  Modern  World   Hundred  Years  War   1337-­‐1453   Series  of  battles  between  England  and  France  interrupted  by  plague,  by   rebellions  in  the  two  countries,  by  truces  and  peace  agreements   War  of  the  Roses   1455-­‐1485   Civil  War  between  the  York  and  Lancaster  dynasties  for  the  throne  of   England   Hundred  Years  War   The  Beginning   1066   • William,  Count  of  Normandy  invades  England,  becoming  King  of  England   1337   • Honor  to  have  lands  in  France  (with  previous  connection  to  France)  from   England’s  perspective   • French  King  wants  Gascony  back  from  English   The  Flemish  Towns  (The  Low  Countries)   • Semi-­‐independent  countries/principalities  under  French  rule   • Highly  urbanized  -­‐>  centre  for  trade  (textile  production)   • Monoculture     o Economy  based  upon  one  thing   o Rich,  and  dependent  upon  England   The  Rebellion   • Artisans  vs.  Merchants   • English  supported  artisans,  French  supported  merchants   1336     Edward  III  pressures  Flemish  Towns  to  take  sides   The  Succession  to  the  French  Throne   • Phillip  IV’s  death  -­‐>  succeeded  by  his  sons  who  die  -­‐>  leaving  no  male  heirs   to  the  throne   • His  daughter  Isabella  has  son  Edward  III   th • French  evokes  6  century  old  law,  the  Law  of  Salian  Frank   Law  of  Salian  Frank   • Only  male  heirs  could  inherit  the  throne     *The  official  beginning  of  The  Hundred  Years  War   1337   • France  choses  cousin  Phillip  VI  instead  of  Edward  III   • England  wants  French  throne   BACKGROUND   1. Flemish  Cloth  Towns  -­‐>  English  economic  relations   2. Philip  VI  took  Gascony  (English  fief)   3. Edward  III’s  claim  for  the  French  throne     Question:     The  Hundred  Years  War  was…       More  than  100  years  of  sporadic  fighting   1337-­‐1360   • English  victories   • English  archers  use  longbows   o Feudal  combat  (French)  -­‐>  modern  combat  (English)   o Although  not  as  accurate,  they  could  reach  farther  than  crossbows   1360,  Peace  of  Bretigny-­‐  Calais   • Edward  III  has  Calais,  Gascony,  etc.   • Edward  III  renounces  claims  to  the  French  throne   Outcome     • French  push  back  the  English  (1360-­‐1370)   • Calmer  phase  of  war   Burgundy   Aside:  Dukes  and  Lords  were  usually  brothers  or  close  familial  relations  with  the  King     The  Duke  of  Burgundy,  “John  the  Fearless”   • Unhappy,  wanted  more  power!   • New  dynasty,  new  country,  sought  to  expand  area   o Expanded  to  Flemish  Cloth  Towns,  economic  interest  in  England   o Want  independence  from  France   Kings  Henry  V  (1413-­‐1422)   • Great  at  warfare,  exposed  to  war  at  a  young  age   • Revived  English  claims  to  the  French  throne   o King  Charles  VI  -­‐>mentally  ill  -­‐>  political  turmoil  in  France   o Sought  to  conquer  France  and  expand  English  territory     1415,  Battle  of  Agincourt     • Longbows,  “triumph  of  the  longbow”   • Burgundies  never  came  to  Agincourt  to  aid  the  English   1420,  Treaty  of  Troyes   •
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