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Lecture

Hist06 Explorations and Expliotations of the World.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Sept.  25,  2012   The  Early  Modern  World   The  Explorations  and  Exploitations  of  the  World   th th State  Formation  in  15  and  16  centuries   • Strong  states,  nation  states   o Idea  that  a  state  should  consist  of  one  nation  –one  language  and  one   faith   o thtion  anth  “imagined  community”   France  ,  15  and  16  Centuries   • New,  united  strong  France,  beginning  of  nation  state   Charles  VII  (1422-­‐1461)   • Permanent  army   o Allied  self  with  fortified  cities,  provided  military  suppor   • Reorganized  the  royal  council   o Tools  for  governing,  aid  in  creating  a  functioning  state   Louis  XI  (1463-­‐1483)   • Expanded  the  army   • Took  controls  of  independent  regions   o Unite  France   • Expanded  the  taxation   o Most  important  income  for  ruler   • Subdued  the  aristocracy   o Old  aristocracy  –  noblesse  d’epee    Knights  from  medieval  period,  now  useless  on  battlefield    Still  contested  the  power  of  the  king   • Nobelesse  de  robe   o Less  fret,  loyal  to  the  king   o State  servants   Burgundy   • Charles  the  Bold  91467-­‐1677)   • Could  have  developed  into  own  nation  state   • King  not  strong  enough  to  subdue,  aid  of  Swiss   1477   • Charles  the  Bold,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  killed  on  the  battlefield   • The  end  of  Burgundy   • Returned  to  France,  other  parts  return  to  the  Holy  Roman  Empire   France   • Estates  General  (representative  assembly)   • Remain  weak  until  the  French  Revolution   o Little  to  stop  the  monarch  from  expanding  power  –  absolute   monarchy   England   • War  of  the  Roses  (1455-­‐85)   Henry  Tudor(  1485-­‐1509)   • Punished  anyone  who  rebelled,  confiscated  land,  hanged  traitors   Henry  VIII  (1509-­‐1547)   • State  formations  by  centralizing  the  government   • Departments  of  the  state   o Bookkeeping,  law  and  jurisdiction   o Handled  by  trained  staff   • Bureaucracy,  “bureaus  “   o Required  to  have  a  functioning  government   • Parliament  (representative  assembly)   o Right  to  taxation   • Constitutional  monarchy   o King  rules  together  with  parliament   o Ruler  does  not  have  absolute  power   • Privy  Council   o Private  council,  chosen  councilors  and  ministers,  very  powerful   o Against  the  parliament,  expand  power   Spain   • Divided  into  smaller  kingdoms   Who  were  the  moors?     A  Muslim  Group   Islamic  Empire,  750   • The  Reconquista   o Al-­‐Andalus.  Muslim  part  of  Spain   o Multi-­‐ethical  territory,  mostly  peaceful   o Castile  pushed  Muslims  back   th o 14  century,  confined  to  small  area  of  Granada   Isabella  of  Castile  and  Ferdinand  of  Aragon  (1479-­‐1516)   • Golden  Age  of  Spain   • Stated  the  last  phase  of  the  Reconquista     • 1452,  Granada  fell,  Muslims  either  convert  or  leave   1492   • Before,  large  Jewish  population,  expelled  from  England   • 1492,  Jews  expelled  from  Spain   Holy  War   • Last  phase  of  the  crusades  in  Europe   • Isabella  a  devout  Catholic,  Isabella  the  Catholic   o Large  number  of  converted  people  in  kingdom   o Distrusted  them   The  Spanish  Inquisition,  1480   • Shared  between  Aragon  and  Castile   o Not  under  papal  control,  state  controlled   • Isabella’s  distrust  of  converted  Catholics   • Role  was  to  investigate  Muslims  and  Jews  who  were  converted  in  Spain   o Many  burned  alive   • Orthodox  Catholicism   o Create  national  identity,  the  nations  state   o Enhanced  power  of  King  and  Queen,  and  their  prestige   • “Most  Catholic  Majesties”,  title  granted  by  pope   o Right  to  appoint  
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