Class Notes (811,219)
Canada (494,566)
History (1,238)
HIST 1010 (160)

Hist19 The Enlightenment.pdf

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Nov. 15, 2012 The Early Modern World The Enlightenment Intellectual Movement • Many contrasting opinions • Important thinkers, French- Scotland, England, etc. • Pan- European, core is in Paris, France An Intellectual Movement • Questioning authority • Rationalism, empiricism- acknowledged by empiricism • Knowledge will lead to progress • Emphasis on education- not only schooling, but by gaining knowledge o Built heavily upon the scientific revolution Philosophes • “Intellectual” • Humor and satire an important element Francois- Marie Arouet Voltaire Voltaire (1694-1778) • Playwright o Scenes: changes over time • Constitutional monarchy vs. absolute monarchy • Philosophical Letters o Why Britain was better- political system far superior than France • Book was banned • Either in prison, fleeing, or in exile • Lived on the border between France and Switzerland • Introduce new ideas to a larger audience o Ideas of the enlightenment • Social and political ideas from the Scientific Revolution • Help from lover, Marquise de Chatelet o Translated Newton’s works into France o Scientific ideas in general- rationalism and principles of scientific inquiry • Voltaire an others- scientific rationality • Travelled, Prussia, Geneva • Published: Candide o Novel depicting adventures o Satire o Negative story- effected by an earthquake- saw devastation and loss of human life- “This is the best place ever- how this was how the world was supposed to be”- making fun of naïve authors-sheds life on interesting things- travels to the New World encountering slavery o No simple solution o Ending: focus on smaller things- the change cannot happen over night- saw change of the world • Challenge all authority o Always managed to make somebody angry • Admired religious tolerance in Great Britain o Greatest enemy- Catholic Church o Makes fun of church and priests- aristocracy and priest his main targets • Criticize church and power- its influence- especially education • Theist • Deists o Believed in God, believed he created the world- then disappeared- left it to humans to decide (God as a clock maker- mechanistic- starts the clock- then steps back) • Atheists o Can outspokenly deny the existence of God • World is controlled by physical laws- the laws that control humans Montesquieu (1689-1755) • The Spirit of Laws (1748) o Deduce human laws by studying all societies • Nature that changed the various human societies o Different climates that changed societies (colder- suited for public, warmer- lavery)  Nature has given them a vigor mind • Many took his thinking – Catherine II • More advanced society was, the more progressive it was • Advocated separation from educated,________, and ______ o Importance to keep balance o Used nature to justify political systems and systems of exploitation • Nature was used to explain phenomenon o Baroque- determined by nature o A Ruler in control of nature • English o Nature seemingly natural o Placed in natural beautiful spots o Deceiving- nothing natural of these gardens whatsoever- trees planted, lake manmade o Innocence and “back to the nature” o Boys taken from the city to the countryside • Humans could control nature- to make it better than nature itself • Idea of natural is created Jean- Jaques Rousseau (1712-1778) • Emile o Humans need to follow their nature o More positive than Voltair o Humans had a in born goodness o Saw the cities and intrigues at court as corruption  Wanted to humans to go back to nature to assert their goodness • Mar
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.