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HIST 1010 Nov 8 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Tuesday, November 8, 2011 The Eighteenth Century o “Watershed of biological regimes” changes in food supply, production, disease environment, and use of human labor it(Fernand Braudel) and the “Great Turning Point” (Robert Heilbroner) in economic development Clicker Q 1968: 3.5 billion 2011: 7 billion The population of this plant has reached 7 billion. In the future, it is likely to: a) Continue to grow b) Stabilize c) Decline o In some point in history, population began to grow and never looked back I. Throughout E-M period, ratio between births per 1000 more or less constant at 40/1000 A. Births began to overtake deaths in 18thC. Still, generally short life spans; 30-50% mortality of those below 20. Aftermath of plague, different regime of reproductive control entered social practice; marriage ages rose = fewer children; survival rates higher, stability achieved B. Acute poverty of half of the population: Rich, who “looked down on” the poor, lived longer. Uncertain, precarious; most 18 century people would experience starvation or feelings of hunger; times where hard to find food; although, a lot better than 100 years earlier; people who look down on you = associated with arrogance of rich; wealthy people typically bigger, taller, lived longer (because healthier, had more to eat) C. Rate and severity of subsistence crisis diminished a. Last plague in W Europe 1720 People developed immunity against plague; no longer killed; brick used more = less contact with rats + plague carriers; London rebuilt in 1660’s in brick and stone; London became vastly healthier place to live as a result b. Food supply stabilized Better food supply = less poverty I. B. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) Study of population; pop. increases geometrically (doubling exponentially) whereas food supply could never increase that rapidly; as pop. grew, assumed starvation and crisis would grow also; false – because as pop. grows, people are fed better o Predicted that population increase was geometrical, while food production could increase only arithmetically; but this prediction no longer applied to Europe. II. A new economic model: Capitalism Didn’t receive name until Marx wrote about it A. Banking and credit well established by 1700 invention of double entry book keeping = finance and quantification; new way of thinking about $$; capitalism = putting $$ to work; advancement in long distance trade 2 B. Joint stock companies operated globally since early 1600s Stock exchanges in W (ex. Amsterdam); put money to work – always risk; if trade goods were secured = way to get rich; wealthiest place in Early Modern World = Dutch trading cities C. “Stock markets” raised capital for many large-scale ventures (trade; water; transport) Opens door to greed
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