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HIST 2250
Mary Ann Cyphers- Reich

Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 1: Studying Politics Political Studies: Formal study of politics with and among nations Conflict Resolution: Process in domestic or international affairs where antagonism is sought to be reconciled through the use of mediation and negotiation Conflict: Differences in preferred outcomes among social groups Socialization: Process whereby individuals act in a social manner; creation of social and political authority and rules to regulate behaviour so as to permit operation of social units Decision-Making: Mechanism or pattern of relations involving different levels of government where determinations and judgments regarding the governance of political systems are made; Also known as the “black box” Public Goods: Resources that are present in a political system where use by one individual should not affect use by others; including social welfare, money, protect from attack, etc. Liberal Democracy:Apolitical system based on freedom based on freedom & individual liberty, and on the principle that governance requires the assent of all citizens through participation through the electoral process, articulation of views, and direct or indirect representation in governing institutions- *more political freedom Authoritarianism:Political system requiring absolute obedience to a constituted authority- *less political freedom 17 century: Philosopher Thomas Hobbes argued that without society and political authority, people would be in “a state of nature”– “everyone for themselves” frame of mind- life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish & short Critical thought is a response to arguments, positions, evidence, experience & observations with considered opinions about a proper course of action Politics: Is a response to the natural tendency among human beings to come together & create larger, organized groups, seeking a way to allocate the benefits & responsibilities that accompany the social unit Policies, laws, regulations & rules guide/shape society Only humans possess ‘logos’- language & reason (Greek) Social Sciences: The scientific study of human society & social relationships Political science reflects the emphasis on social science methodologies that were popularized in the post- WW2 era AnalyticalApproach: Perspective that views politics as an empirical discipline (one that can be observed) rather than a science; politics cannot be broken down into parts, but must be seen comprehensively- *Most common & oldest approach Empirical: Analysis based not on concepts and theory, but on what can be observed or experimented on- *The analytical approach sees politics as an empirical discipline TraditionalApproach: Method in politics drawing heavily on fields of law, philosophy and history that relies on subjective evaluation of the observer- *AKA the analytical approach …? Any observer of political activity will have his/her own views & bias Behaviouralism: Perspective that concentrates on the “tangible” aspects of political life, rather than values; the plan was to establish a discipline that was scientific & objective The “Space Race”: After the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik 1, governments & universities put more money and time into science than things such as political studies Political Science Research: Includes testing, making a hypothesis, conceptual development, comparison and falsification Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Post-Behaviourism:Approach that attempted to reconcile the problems encountered by behaviouralism by allowing for values &ideology in its analysis Structural-Functionalism: Approach that focuses on the role of political structures and their functions in society, such as legislature, bureaucracy, judiciary Systems Theory:Approach that views politics as a system of interaction binding political structures such as government to individual action; argues that politics is a dynamic process of information flows & responses that encompasses political institutions, groups, and individuals- try to understand decisions & reactions of people Political Economy:Approach that views political & economic spheres as harmonious and mutually dependent perceptions of the world; relationship between people, government, and the economy- main concern was power & wealth ComparativeApproach: Method of political analysis that compares different systems of political authority based on system type, time period, or form of leadership Levels of Analysis: Approach to political studies that suggests that accurate analysis must be inclusive of international, domestic, and individual areas of interaction Behaviouralism was said to be too focused on science; politics is also about views, opinions & actions Major Questions toAsk: 1. What is the political issue at hand? 2. Who is involved? 3. How did the events unfold? 4. Why did the events take place? 5. How was society affected? Three Main Approaches to these questions: 1. How politics is integral to modern life/directly affect our lives, neighbourhoods, relationships 2. Comparative approach 3. Levels of analysis Today’s youth are not less involved politically- That’s a myth Globalization: The intensification of economic, social, cultural and political relations across borders- Includes internet & communication Ethnic & Religious Conflict: War or opposition among different racial, linguistic or religious groups Protectionism: Tendency of countries to safeguard their own economic sectors or industries using tariffs, quotas or other forms of trade/investment legislation Connection and division influence political change Domestic Politics: Concerns itself with national governments and individual countries- ex. Our class is mostly on the Domestic Politics of Canada; where you live highly influences what you learn International Politics: Political relations that exist at an international level Citizenship: Status granted to citizens that comes with responsibilities and duties, as well as rights; people are entwined with their birth nation or nation of adoption Approx. 250,000 people become Canadian citizens each year (throughimmigration) Benefits of Canadian Citizenship: • Legal rights • Equality rights Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes • Mobility rights • Aboriginal’s rights • Freedom of thought • Freedom of speech • The right to peaceful assembly Responsibilities of Canadian Citizenship: • Obey the law • Respect rights & freedoms of others • Preserve Canada’s heritage & environment Multiculturalism: Where several racial, cultural & ethnic identities co-exist peacefully in one nation ------------------1------------------1------------------1------------------1------------------1------------------1-------- ------------------1---- FROM LECTURE: • Cynicism is common, but healthy skepticism leads to better informed citizens • Politics is a progressive discipline • Greek politikos: politics, pertaining to civic affairs; The root is polis or city-state • David Easton: “Process by which values are authoritatively allocated in society.” • Harold Lasswell: “Who gets what, when, and how.” • Vladimir Lenin: “Who does what to whom.” • Mao Tse Tung: “Bloodless war.” • Bismarck: “The doctrine of the possible” • Aristotle: “We are political animals” • The ideas of values, power, relationships, and action. • Politics is part of the social sciences • Politics helps us organize ourselves • Politics allows for distribution of benefits and wealth, and public goods • Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 2: Political Concepts Concept: General idea emerging from an instance or event Order: Condition in which both units & interaction within a political system are marked by regularity & stability with the imposition of accepted & enforced rules, practices & structures • One of the basic preconditions for civilization is order • It’s difficult to establish order without sacrificing other desired conditions • Political order is the collection of rules, laws, norms, customs & conventions that delimit & hold together a society System:Agroup of individual entities or actors that interact with each other to form an integrated whole • Systems are connected & organized, representing collective wholes • Change in one part usually means change in all • Apolitical system is a series of many political structures that work together to drive the politics of social interaction Organizations: Structured relations existing within a political community that are established to distribute both the responsibilities & the privileges that arise from formal association with others • May range from political parties, to interest groups, to private groups that allocate resources • Can be local/national/international • Can be public/private • Can be based on politics, economy, religion, ethnicity, knowledge, culture Institutions:Groupings that have developed & are to attend to particular needs for society • International level: United Nations • National level: Courts • Strong institutions are durable, transparent, autonomous & accountable • Weak institutions often contribute to political instability, corruption & underdevelopment State: Arecognized political unit, considered to be sovereign, with a defined territory & people & a central government responsible for administration • Astate is distinguished from the gov’t of a country by its more permanent nature • State & institutions generally remain constant Nation: Agroup of persons who share an identity that is based on, but not limited to, shared ethnic, religious, cultural or linguistic qualities • People of a nation are part of largely unacquainted groups, they just share characteristics that bring them together • People who share a sense of identity Nov. 2007: House of Commons recognized Quebec as its own nation within Canada Sovereignty: Recognition by other political authorities that a government is legitimate and rightful for a political economy • An attribute that is solely held by states • Allows a state to be in absolute control of its territory Power: Ability to achieve goals in a political system& to have others do as you wish them to • Dynamic power—Active, ex. The waging of war • Static power—Passive, ex. Power seen as a measure of status in society • Hard power—The ability to provide incentives & punishments in order to get what you want Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes • Soft power—Ideology, culture, media, ideas • Relational power—Getting someone to do something they wouldn’t normally do • Structural power—The ability to change social/political/legal environments for others Influence: The ability to change behaviour in others without exerting direct power over them Authority: The power or right to force obedience Joseph Stalin—Controlled the Soviet Union from 1924-53 by using propaganda to build up his cult of personality • TraditionalAuthority—when power is passed down through generations • Rational-LegalAuthority—derived from the acceptance/respect of laws/norms/rules • CharismaticAuthority—The person rules because of specific qualities they have Leadership: Group of individuals that lead society Charisma examples: Bill Clinton,Adolf Hitler Legitimacy: What is lawful, appropriate, proper, and conforms to the standards of a political system Laws: Rules imposed on society by the governing authority • Enforced by threat of punishment by organized authorities • Also provide incentives to do good or to rebel Legislation: Laws enacted by governing authority Policy: Laws or principles of performance adopted by a government Policy in general, is a coordinated plan of action designed to achieve a predetermined set of goals Equality: Parity in a political system Political Equality: The right to participate in politics Social Equality: Equal status – ex. Suffragette movement Economic Equality: Distribution of benefits Social Order: Recognized structure of power, responsibility & liberty Absence of chaos Recognized structure of power/liberty/responsibility Security: Freedom from danger or injury We take for granted International security; terrorists Progress:Advancement in society towards a better & improved state of affairs; an integral part of liberal political theory Justice: State of affairs involving the maintenance of what is morally right & fair Ajust system- the pursuit of equitable aspirations Most commonly associated with legal affairs Social Justice: An equitable distribution of goods & values in society The principles we structure our society upon Economic Justice:The redistribution of economic resources from certain groups in society to others In a country/region/globally Liberty: Freedom from despotic control Freedom: Ability to act without constraint Areas of action that aren’t prohibited in law Rights/freedoms act Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Negative Liberty: Areas of activity in which governments do not interfere, where an individual is free to choose Example:Aperson’s own choice of how they live their life Rights: Socially acceptable, morally correct, just & fair privileges granted to members of a political community United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights- ex. To be free from slavery Positive Liberty: Freedom to achieve one’s full potential Licence: Unlimited freedom to do as one pleases Duties: Responsibilities to protect rights Community: Social, political, cultural &economicties that bind individuals to one another Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 3: Political Thought, Philosophy & Ideology Ideology: Set or system of ideas that form the basis of a political or economic system & provide guidance & direction for political leadership Images Attitudes  Values  Beliefs  Ideology Philosophy: Study of questions about existence & knowledge, ethics, justice & morality based on logical reasoning rather than observation Comes from Greek word meaning “love of knowledge” Plato: Ideas about the role of gov’t & good society, a just society & a search for true knowledge & good Political Philosophy:An endeavor to understand the meaning of political life across the spectrum of human experience Analyzing what happens in politics & what can be improved Utopian: Idealized place or system; an ideally perfect society; impractical perfection Social Constructivism: Asociological & political meta-theory that explains the interactions between individual agents, their social groupings, & their environment Marx: Says that society can be improved by analyzing the social/economic/political conditions that have prevailed human society throughout history Political Realism:An approach to politics that emphasizes power & interests over ideas or social constructions Niccolo Machiavelli’s theory, which stated that there should be a definite separation from morality in politics Values: Principles, standards; what an individual or community esteems as meaningful Self-Determination: Ability to act in free choice without external compulsion General Will: The will of the community as a whole To reflect the people’s wills, true interests, & what is good for them Particular Will: The will of the individual; as expressed by Rousseau Not in harmony with general will; domination of self-desires & passion Democracy: Political system based on the principle that governance requires the assent of all citizens through participation in the electoral process, articulation of views, and direct or indirect representation of governing institutions Each individual exercises the right to self-determination Invisible Hand: Adam Smith’s notion that economic forces left on their own would lead to maximize efficiency & economic growth over time as they engage in competition against each other; benefits to society as a whole exist without political interference Toleration: The acceptance or protection of individuals, groups, & types of behaviours that may be disapproved of by the majority of society Bourgeois:According to socialists such as Marx, the property-owning class that exploits the working (proletariat) class Materialist: Understanding the economical & physical basis for society (in Marxism) Dialectics:Where ideas & thoughts throughout history come up against each other, and, from the class of ideas/economic processes, a new reality is born (in Marxism) Sustainable Development: Model of economic growth that seeks to use renewable resources so as not to destroy the environment in which we have to live Recycling, re-using, cutting down, new inventions Propaganda: Spreading of information, true or otherwise, for the purpose of aiding a cause or to make an audience react in a certain way Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Caliphate: Government inspired by Islam that rules over its subjects using Islamic law Sharia Law: Sacred law of Islam Jihad: (two meanings) 1) Amoral struggle/ a struggle for righteousness 2) Aform of holy war ISM’S Capitalism: Economic system where production & distribution of goods relies on private capital & investment System that rewards competitiveness & efficiency Communism: Apolitical theory based on writings of Marx & Engels, that adopts class conflict to form a system where all property is publicly owned & each citizen works to his or her own best ability & is compensated equitably Utilitarianism: Abranch of political thought that states that the worth of a particular action is determined by its contribution to overall utility, meaning the balance of happiness & unhappiness in society Liberalism: Calls for equal rights & freedoms for all human individuals • Progress • Rights/freedoms – LIBERTY • Self-determination Nationalism: • Seeks the separation of nations from eachother • Seeks to protect political institutions & mechanisms that ensure that nations are prosperous • Most common: Demands by certain groups for independence & sovereignty; ex. Quebec Socialism: • Bourgeious vs. Proletariot • Marx • Humans are simply a part of society • Everyone deserves equal treatment no matter what • Attacks capitalism due to horrific factory and work life and living conditions due to it Conservatism: Cautious, resistant to change in favour of established methods & lifestyles • Society is absolutely crucial to human development—MAIN difference to liberalism • Society is hierarchal in nature • Some preform more important functions in society than others • Traditions & customs • Social classes Feminism: EQUAL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN • Jobs • Voting • Suffragette movement Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Environmentalism: THE GREEN MOVEMENT\ • Sustainable development • Arose in 1980s • Destruction of the biosphere is imminent unless we create change Islamic Fundamentalism: Religious movements advocating a return to the “fundamentals” of Islamic religious text Fascism: • Nations should be organized with one leader who has absolute authority & makes all decisions • This leader represents the will of the people 1 --Structure of the state is hierarchal Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 4: The Role of Government ROLE OF GOVERNMENT: 1) To provide necessary security for its citizens 2) Concerns of welfare of citizens: Social conditions, opportunities & benefits Sovereignty: Recognition by other political authorities that a government is legitimate & rightful for a political community Laissez-Faire: “To let be”—Economic theory that suggests that a reduction in political control would benefit the economic system A“free market” system Citizens could strive for their own pursuits Would allow competition, persistence & self-interest Capitalistic** Libertarianism: Ideology based on freedom of speech, action & thought; the role of government should be limited Liberal Democracy: 1) Equality of political rights: Every member of society may participate in political events 2) Political Participation: Distributes responsibilities among the ruling + others such as Interest groups 3) Majority Rule: Recognizes that all votes are held equally, & the majority of votes governs 4)Political Freedom: Citizens don’t have to participate but can if they choose to; CHOICE. Constitution: Sets out basic law for the country, outlines rights, & outlines the mechanisms of gov’t Canadian Constitution: ^ Does this, is composed of ConstitutionActs of 1867 & 1982 + unwritten amendments & constitution elements Monarchy: Form of government with monarch as head of state Theocracy: Political system ruled by religious leaders Aristocracy: Political system ruled by a hierarchical elite Despot: Political leader who rules with absolute power & authority Junta: Military government, usually a dictatorship Authoritarianism:Political system requiring absolute obedience to a constituted authority Common in many countries Driven by powerful, wealthy elites Totalitarianism: Authoritarian political system that not only controls most social interaction, but is also marked by a desire by the government to force its objectives & values on citizens in an unlimited manner Authoritarian + an emphasis on ideology Control most social interaction, & desire to force gov’t objectives & values upon all citizens, unlimitedly INTENSE. Transitional Government:Political system in which the move from authoritarianism to liberal democracy results in elements of both, with a gradual change towards democracy GOVERNMENT IN CANADA • Canada’s a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY : British monarch grants ultimate authority to head of state • Also a LIBERAL DEMOCRACY • Prime Minister heads Canadian gov’t Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes • Governor General represents the monarch within Canada • Each province has a Lieutenant Governor, but not Territories • Territories each have a Commissioner (represents the federal gov’t instead of the monarch) • Canada’s also a PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY- the legislature (federal parliament) has elected members (House of Commons) • Senate is not elected; Governor General, with advice from Prime Minister, appoints members • Capitalist economy with large gov’t involvement Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 5: Branches of Government Government:The institutions and people responsible for carrying out the affairs and administration of a political system The Crown: Queen, Governor General, Lieutenant Governors Member of Parliament:Representative of voters in a parliamentary system Cabinet:Members of the executive level of government responsible for decision-making & administration of the bureaucracy Cronyism:In politics, the practice of choosing or preferring friends or associates Nepotism: The practice of choosing or preferring relatives Opposition: One or more parties that are not part of government but keep the ruling power of the elected party on their toes They vocally, constantly keep the ruling party in check even though they have no real power Electorate: People in a political system with the right to vote in elections; enfranchised citizens Bureaucrats: Those responsible for carrying out public policy; public employees Gov’ts make laws, oppositions criticize & look for improvements, judges interpret & advise, & bureaucrats implement Executive: Usually the top level of government, or the leader; maintains leadership of the entire political system, and often reflects the leadership & preoccupation of the dominant political party Legislative: Referring to a body of a political system with the responsibility to make laws, known as the legislature Judiciary: Courts level of governance Review, interpret, arbitrate (settle/determine) Congress: Legislative chamber of government in the United States Separation of Powers: Division of powers among several institutions in government, (ex. Legislature/executive) to avoid concentration of authority Fusion of Powers: Political system where legislature & executive powers are combined, though specific powers may be granted to each level Political Culture: Set of attitudes, beliefs & values that undermine any political system Question Period: Time allotted in the House of Commons for members of the house to ask questions to the Prime Minister or Cabinet Ministers Shouting match, 45 minutes Ministerial Responsibility:Principle in parliamentary systems that requires members of the political executive, both individually & as a group, to remain accountable to the legislature Westminster System: British model of parliamentary representative government Caucus: Group of elected representatives, usually based on party membership, but which also may be grouped by race, gender, geographic representation, etc. Legitimation:Providing legitimacy or legal force/status to political decisions; in accordance with established or accepted standards & patterns Bicameral: Legislative or parliamentary body with 2 assemblies ex. Canada’s Senate & House of Commons Unicameral: Legislative or parliamentary body with 1 assembly Representative Democracy: Political system in which voters elect others to act on their behalf Common Law: Legal system where decisions are made on the basis of precedent, case law, or previous decisions Civil Law: Legal system where legislative bodies enact laws through statutes, ordinances, & regulations Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Veto: The blocking of/ refusal to endorse a decision Checks & Balances: System of inspection & evaluation of different levels & branches of governments by others Federalism: Form of governance that divides powers between the central government & regional governments; often, particular roles & capacities are given to regional governments Confederalism:Political system of divided powers where added power is given to the non-central governments, & limited authority & power is conferred to the central government Patriation/Repatriation: Process of transferring power from one government to another LEGISLATURE • USAlegislature is Congress- Splits power between legislative (congress) & executive (President) • Canada legislature is Parliament- Mixed system legislature • British legislature is the Westminster model- Sovereignty/supremacy (legislative branch is most powerful) • Set out laws • Control/scrutinize/audit the executive & the bureaucracies • Control gov’t budgets − Charter of Rights & Freedoms- 1982, Repatriation − Canada practices common laws Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 6: Political Systems Decentralization: Process where power & authority is taken from the central government & conferred to non-central (ex. State, regional, provincial) governments This divides power & responsibility among the land so that power isn’t just in a small group of hands DelegatedAuthority: Situation where some powers may be given to sub-national authorities by the national government in a unitary system Federalism:Guaranteeing certain rights & responsibilities to certain areas of gov’t Confederalism: Giving most of the power to additional gov’ts and giving a limited amount to the centralCanada doesn’t really count because the majority of power is still in Ottawa** Unitary Systems: Political systems that concentrate political powers and authority within one central government, which is singularly responsible for the activities of the political unit, both domestic & foreign Criticisms: 1) Less democratic because they don’t fulfill the wishes of other sections 2) One central gov’t couldn’t possibly be in touch with alllll the citizens of the state 3) The gov’t itself doesn’t reflect cultural diversity Solution: DEVOLUTION. Devolution: Political systems where some authority is given to regional governments, but the power to oversee, dismiss, or entrench these authorities is still held by the central government Reserved Matters: Powers not given to the Northern IrelandAssembly, that may be transferred to the region at a later date Excepted Matters: Powers not given to the Northern IrelandAssembly, that will remain permanently under the control of the central Government in Westminster Lander: “States” in German Concurrent Powers: When control is shared between provincial & federal levels of governments Peace, Order, & Good Government (POGG): Clause in the Canadian constitution that specifies that powers given to the provinces are reserved for the federal government Reservation: When provincial legislation is put up for consideration by the federal cabinet Disallowance: When provincial legislation is rejected or vetoed by the federal cabinet Declaratory Power: Federal government power to take control of any local project if it decides that this would be for the greater National good Centralized Federalism: Process where federal gov’t increases its power relative to the provinces Cooperative Federalism:Cooperation & coordination of policy between federal & provincial levels Executive Federalism: Agenerally conflictive relationship between the provinces & the federal gov’t when provinces attempt (often successfully) to achieve greater autonomy from the federal gov’t, which resists such attempts Conditional Grants: Funds given to provincial authorities but with controls & conditions on how the money can be spent Equalization Payments: Compensation given to more needy regions in a political system in order to create a general state of parity Transfer Payments: Funds given by the federal gov’t to provincial gov’ts on a conditional or unconditional basis Unconditional Grants: Payments from the federal gov’t that may be spent by the provinces in any way they see fit Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes FEDERAL Responsible for: -Trade & commerce -Indian reserves -Fishing & coastal -Taxation -Unemployment -Military -Census & statistics PROVINCIAL Responsible for: -Hospitals -Asylums -Charities -Education -Prisons -Property/civil rights SHARED -Agriculture -Immigration -Old age pensions Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 7: Political Participation; Elections & Parties Socialization: Process where individuals act in a social manner; the creation of social & political authority and rules to regulate behaviour so as to permit operation of social units Participation in a social unit is a product of how we are socialized Direct Democracy: Political system in which citizens are directly involved in the decision- making process Indirect/Representative Democracy:Political system of representation in which citizens elect delegates to act on their behalf Election: Aform of choosing governors where individual citizens cast their vote for candidates running for office Suffrage: Granting of the right to vote Independents: Candidates for office belonging to no political party Constituencies: Territorial or geographical localities (ridings) represented by a political chosen through the electoral process Enumeration: The process of determining the number of individuals eligible to vote in a constituency Rotten Boroughs: In Britain, areas with very small populations & electorates that were given equal standing with normal-sized constituencies Pocket Boroughs: In Britain, areas where very small electorates were controlled by (or in the pocket of) the major local landowner Gerrymandering: Controversial method of grouping together, or dividing, groups of voters in order to maximize or reduce their power—Ex. Ethnic minorities – Highly controversial VoterApathy: Condition in which individuals do not vote, or do not follow the election process, because they believe elections do not affect or influence them, or that they themselves will have little influence over outcomes anyway Ballot: Card used to cast a vote Suffragette: Female advocate of women’s right to vote Voter Turnout: Number of voters who show up to the polls on Election Day In some countries if over ½ show up it’s considered a GOOD turnout Education & awareness can change this All people +18 in Canada can vote, including the mentally ill & prisoners. But many don’t. Compulsory Voting: System in which citizens have a legal obligation to vote in elections—ex. Brazil, Australia, Turkey Election Platforms: Positions of political parties or individuals regarding issues and political intentions Simple Plurality (First-past-the-post): Electoral system where the winner receives the most (but not necessarily a majority) of votes Minority Government: Government by party that received the most votes, but not exactly the majority of votes, in an election—Simply the result of how many parties are involved. Run-Off System (Two-Round System):Aform of electoral system in which a first round of voting takes place & the two (or three) candidates receiving the most votes pass to a second round of voting to determine an outright winner Proportional Representation:Electoral system in which seats are designated according to the party’s popular vote; used in countries as a whole in order to institute proportions between votes allotted for all the parties Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Party List: Voting system in which voters in multi-member constituencies choose from a list of candidates; parties are rewarded with a percentage of the seats available in each constituency Single Transferable Vote (SFV): Voting system in which voters cast their ballot in multi-member constituencies, expressing their 1 & 2 choice for candidates; the people who get sufficient votes from the 1 round are elected; however 2 choices may be transferred & counted if all seats are not filled in 1 vote Additional Member: Mix of simple plurality & proportional representation voting; voters elect a representative & also cast a vote for a political party Political Party: Organization that seeks to gain & maintain political power Ideology: Set or system of ideas that form the basis of a political or economic system & provide guidance & direction for political leadership One-Party System: Political system in which only 1 political party is allowed to form the government, or compete in elections Competitive Party System: Electoral system found in liberal democracies in which political parties are permitted to compete with one another for support from the electorate Two-Party System:Competitive party system marked by 2 political parties Multi-Party System: Competitive party system with more than 2 parties Cadre Party: Party created & directed by a small elite group; tends to control much power within legislatures Mass Party: Party organized in society at large, rather than within a government, that has public influence through the power of memberships, rather than in the hands of a small minority elite group Umbrella Parties: Political parties that cover a wide range of ideologies & beliefs in society, with the idea of incorporating as many different groups in society as possible Militia Party: Party system with a centralized leadership system; often having martial leadership; frequently found in one-party systems Recruitment Function: Role played by political parties to help bring new voters into the political process Attack Ads: Negative/aggressive television & media advertising by one political party or organization against another Direct Democracy: Political system in which citizens are directly involved in the decision- making process Referendum (Plebiscite): When citizens vote to express their opinions on a particular policy, the results of which will determine whether or not that policy is adopted by the government Winter 2011 - Prof. Szala - POLS 1150 Course Notes Chapter 8: Political Socialization & Culture Symbols of Canada: Flag, beaver, maple leaf, national anthem Political Socialization: The process in which individuals are assimilated into political culture Ex. Singing the anthem … waving the flag … learning the history … voting Political Culture: Set of attitudes, beliefs, & values that underpin any political system Opinion Poll: Investigation of public opinion conducted by interviewing a sample of citizens Fourth Estate: Media (with the other 3 estates being clergy, nobles & commoners) Most persuasive Shows things we wouldn’t normally see, such as Iraq soldiers & inside Parliament Helps advocate Follows conflict Editorial Line: Particular perspective on world events offered by news outlets Non-Governmental Organization (NGO): Non-profit group organized on a local, national or international level TheAnti-Globalization Movement: Protests against things such as the World Bank, multi- national corporations, the Group of 8, & The World Trade Movement Interest Groups (Pressure Groups): Groups in a political system that seek to either alter or maintain the approach of government without taking a formal role in elections or seeking an official capacity in government EXAMPLES -Greenpeace -National RiflesAssociation -Commonwealth Fund (improving medi-care in the USA) PoliticalAction Committees: Conglomerates of several interest g
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