Class Notes (809,390)
Canada (493,689)
History (1,237)
HIST 2260 (22)

Unit 4 Summary.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
HIST 2260
Norman Smith

HIST 2260*DE – Unit 4 Summary ETHNICITY ,THE STATE AND THE N ATION  Ethnicity usually defined against template of something we vaguely call ‗normalcy‘ - defined by socially dominant cultural group  Ethnic identity is socially and culturally structured  An ethnic community is community having real or imagined common characteristics that distinguish it from other communities.  Many, possibly all, elements of an individual's personal identity have the potential for group identity - being Black, being Catholic, having a German name, being short, being a cook. But only a few of these specific personal characteristics turn at a particular point in time into group identity that cuts across social roles.  Individual identities that most often become group identities are those of national origin, language, religion, and race.  Ethnic or group identity can include all or some of these in varying degrees.  For British Isles, Canada and U.S., normalcy been occupied by people of British origin who speak English, are Protestant in religion, and are white o Occupies a position of cultural and social hegemony which dominated the mental landscape of the British Isles, and America north of Latin America ENGLISH -IRISHR ELATIONS & THE MPACT OF THE R EFORMATION Before the Reformation  Not until reign of Henry VIII did English turn their attention more closely to Ireland o Henry was concerned that Ireland could be used as ideal launching site for invasion of England by sea - been traditional reason English had attempted since Middle Ages to control island and its people  Henry settled for coercive ‗anglicization‘ program under which English language and culture - and particularly feudal land law - as well as English-style parliament would be forcibly imposed on Ireland o Most important component was ‗surrender and re-grant‘ program under which negotiations and military threats used to coerce Irish lords to ‗submit‘ to Crown  1527 – Henry finding it beneficial to deal with his marital problems, became entangled with ‗Protestant Reformation‘ Henry VIII, Edward VI  1537, Irish Parliament (created by Henry VIII) declared Anglican religion to be ‗established‘ (i.e., official) religion of Ireland  Henry did not reckon with the factor of ethnicity — of a sense of being a separate people, who now began to identify their sense of nation with Catholicism, in an oddly reverse image of the gradual identification of Catholicism with treason in England, and Anglicanism with patriotism and a sense of ethnic national identity there  1541 – Henry had himself declared King of Ireland – instead of being King of England and feudal overlord of Irish kings  Died in 1547 and succeeded by Son Edward VI – little impact in Ireland, as Protestant advisors more concerned with completing Reformation n England Catholic Mary and the Catholic Irish  Edward was succeeded by his half-sister, Mary I. Mary remained Catholic and officially restored the Catholic religion but was hostile to Ireland for reasons other than religion o Same fears of Ireland being used as a base for invasion and imposed England‘s first plantation on Ireland  Mary succeeded by Elizabeth I, who reigned for 43 years and was one of England‘s strongest monarchs ever  Elizabeth re-adopted Anglican religion Elizabeth’s Irish Policy  At first, was remarkably tolerant of Irish subjects mainly because she feared they might align with France and/or Spain (both Catholic and enemies of England), but soon began a campaign of intimidation o Armies pursued scorched earth policy against ordinary Irish and began full-scale policy of planting Protestants, mostly Scots and English, on lands of displaced locals, to anglicize the country  Curious contrast to her light treatment within England and beginning of violent relationship between English and Irish – ironic given her reputation for caution and diplomacy  Prompted a major uprising by Hugh O‘Neill in 1595 in Ulster in the North  In 15989 – help for O‘Neill arrived from Spain, which included money, ammunition, and a small Spanish force of 4,000 troops, which tended to prove the worries English monarchs had always had, but they were defeated  1607 – most of Celtic leadership secretly boarded a ship and sailed for Continent, never to return – Flight of the Earls  Over the next years, the plantation program instituted even more forcefully and systematically, in attempt to anglicize Ireland The ‘Ulster’ Plantation of 1609  Occurred in the reign of James I  Involved confiscation of 3 million acres (30% of island) all in 6 countries in West and Central Ulster o Directed almost exclusively at remaining Celtic lords and supporters who had rebelled in 1595 o Mostly working Presbyterians from Scotland given lands of those evicted o Formed England‘s only successful colony in Ireland – source of current troubles in Northern Ireland, which may finally in 2007 be coming to an end, 400 years after the start The ‘Cromwellian’ Plantation of 1652  In 1649, Cromwell, who was a brilliant general - and later Puritan political leader - brought army to Ireland and quashed rebellion with savagery that has become legendary  Puritans were virulently anti-Catholic, and it was during the Cromwellian Era (1649-1660) that anti-Catholic animus reached its highest level in Irish history  Cromwellian Plantation, which followed war in 1652, was largest and harshest of the confiscations, reducing Catholic ownership of land to 22%, and giving confiscated land this time to Cromwell‘s soldiers and to investors in war effort  By mid-1660s, Marian, Ulster and Cromwellian Plantations created huge landlord class, many of whom were absentee landlords - staying in England and leaving management of estates to others o Rental income permitted them to lead lives of leisure, while backbreaking rents had thrust native Irish into abject poverty, with 85% of populace living at subsistence level o Laid foundation for class warfare — rich vs. poor or, more accurately, rich Protestant landlord vs. poor Catholic tenant The Battle of the Boyne 1690  Irish arose again to take advantage of battle between James II and parliament, invited William of Orange to replace him o Supported hereditary claimant, James II, who was Catholic, vs. man who had deposed him – William of Orange and his Stuart wife Queen Mary o James's Catholic army in Ireland remained intact, and in effort to regain his rightful throne, James promptly began recruiting new Irish and French troops from his exile in France  Promised old Celtic Irish leaders that if war was successful they would recover lands and power  March 1689 – James arrived in Ireland personally to take charge of army  June 1690, William of Orange and army arrived to do battle  Battle of Boyne (July 12, 1690) – William‘s army handily defeated James‘s forces. James fled back to France, thereby effectively abandoning his claim to the throne o His forces continued to fight on for another year until treaty ended the war  Treaty was generous to Catholics – Catholics would have same religious liberty enjoyed under Charles II, and that those still resisting William, if they took an Oath of Allegiance, would be pardoned and allowed to keep their property, practice professions, and bear civilian arms o Catholic general demanded these concession apply not only to own troops but to entire Catholic community  But when formal Treaty was presented to English and Irish Parliaments for ratification, this latter provision - called ‗missing clause‘ - was omitted, thereby facilitating enactment of anti-Catholic penal laws over objection of King William The ‘Williamite’ Plantation of 1693 rd th  3 and final wave of 17 century plantations  Reduced Catholic ownership of land from 22 to 14 percent  These 3 drives resulted in 81% of productive land in Ireland being confiscated from native Irish and transferred to Scots Presbyterians and English Anglicans – who together formed eventually 25% of population as ethnic groups which differed radically from native Irish o Plantations caused massive transfer of wealth and power to non-native landlords, whose rents thrust 85% of natives into poverty THE A GE OF PENAL LAWS AND THE PROTESTANT ASCENDENCY Penal Laws 1694–1727  Between 1694 and 1727, Parliament enacted a penal code for Ireland (actually enacted in a series of laws over these years) to mirror the anti-Catholic laws in place in England since the reign of Elizabeth  Series of laws barred Catholics from voting, sitting in Parliament, holding office, buying land, or inheriting land from Protestants. The code also decreed that Catholic lands must be inherited by all sons of deceased Catholic landowner, rather than just one - ensuring that wealth based on land would gradually be depleted for Catholics o Education and military service also restricted  State church ideal of Anglicanism caused Parliament to place some restrictions on Presbyterians too - were barred from officers‘ positions in military and from holding government offices. o Both groups had to pay a tax to support Anglican Church of Ireland  Presbyterians congregated in the north, nearest Scotland – churches have larger organizations. Typically pursue a middle class livelihood in linen business or farming th  Anglicans congregate mainly in south - major landowners, and integrate more easily into Irish society in 20 century Folk Religion (Folk Catholicism)  Catholics forced into ever-deepening poverty - culture which bred disrespect for law, and ever-growing adherence to Catholicism, as religion served to tighten bonds of community and provide measure of organized defiance to Anglican overlords  Mingled with many beliefs and practices of pagan past - attendance at Mass, prime focus of Catholics everywhere, was rare out of necessity at first, then out of habit. Priests were necessary for rites of passage (baptism, burial, marriage, liturgy – most priests recruited and trained outside Ireland by Jesuits and sent in secretly, where death is penalty if caught Opposition and Reaction: Terrorist Groups  Period of secret societies
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2260

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.