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HIST 3020 (17)
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jan 14 2014.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 3020
Professor
Caitlin Holton
Semester
Winter

Description
th Jan 14 2014 Thinking about Gender 1. Stages of womens history a. Christine de pisan c. 1400 b. Antonia fraiser c. Behaviour is something to emulate or avoid d. Plutarch—concerning the virtues of women i. Countering the claim that women were meant to be seen not heard e. Texts were meant as models and proof that women could and should profit through education i. Women can become virtuous by emulating the behaviour of other virtuous women f. Women worthies i. Biographies of notable women 1. These women were treated in isolation, not considering the context ii. Held up as exemplers and models 1. What about the average women? iii. Ignore larger historical context iv. Focus on extraordinary examples g. Next stage started looking at masculine concepts and how women were missing from these accounts h. Looking to introduce the experiences of women i. Uniformity of womens lives—centralized categories like motherhood, caregivers i. These stories are still orienting around a centralized experience of women and masculine chronologies and timelines and events (being a mother, what happened that was important to men and not women) j. Scholars question the legitimacy of this approach k. Restoring women to history (just add women and stir) or restoring history to women l. Influence of other historiographical approachs i. Marxism ii. Annals school iii. New social history iv. Looking at topics that had not been subjects of history in the past m. Social marginalization i. Subject to restrictions, loss of privilege, ii. This is where womens history as we know it today comes from n. In the 1970s i. Our goal is to understand the significance of the sexes, of gender groups in historical past ii. Discover the range in sex roles and sexual symbolism in different societies and periods; their meaning and how they maintained social order or promoted change [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] iii. Why were sex roles sometimes tightly prescribed and sometimes fluid, sometimes assymetrical and sometimes even iv. Ideas of power, social structure, property, symbols, periodization 2. Gender history a. Critical definitions i. Primary ways of signifying relationships of power ii. Constitutive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes iii. Cultural definition of behaviour defined as appropriate to the sexes in a given society at a given time iv. Set of cultural roles v. Costume, mask, straitjacket where men and women dance their unequal dance vi. Scott talks about relationships between sexes in contextual settings (perception) and lerner talks about isolation and restriction between the sexes and inequality and segregation as well as behaviour; uses personified adjectives—both discuss gender as a social construct and recognize the differences between men and women vii. Gender is a fundamental category of social, cultural, and historical reality, perception and study (Gisela bock) viii. Gender is an invitation to think critically about how the meanings of sex bodies are produced in relation to one another, how these meanings are deployed and changed (scott) ix. How social meaning is mapped onto sexed bodies in given places and times x. We should question why sex difference holds such power over society 3. Masculinity and masculinities a. Early theorists of gender included men in their definitions b. Scott talked about appropriate roles for men and women c. The study of gender was of men and women and their relationships d. In the 90s, gender history finally started discussing masculinity ina real way i. Due to the fact that gender is more easily seen when its about women ii. Had an agenda that focused on women e. Masculine default is the norm f. Women talk about themselves in how they differ from men; their markedness g. ‘male is male only at certain moments; female is female their whole life or during their youth—everything constantly recalls her sex to her’ h. ‘for men, one of the great privileges of being in a superior position is being allowed to take that position for granted, to claim that identity as the norm, and to treat that hierarchy as natural’ i. criticisms of examining masculinity th J
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