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NUTR 3070 (34)
John Dwyer (34)

Conceptualizing Physical Activity.docx

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NUTR 3070
John Dwyer

Conceptualizing Physical Activity Physical Activity; any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in expenditure of energy Types of Physical Activity - Household PA - Occupational PA - Transportation PA - Leisure-time PA o Above and beyond household, occupational, transportation, in your “free time” - Exercise o Structured, planned, do it for a purpose: enhanced fitness o Much more structured o Type of leisure-time physical activity Classifying Physical Activity by Intensity - Light o Walking around, benefits but not tremendous o Stretching - Moderate o Walking a little faster; i.e. when in a hurry o Dancing o Bicycling on moderate terrain o Some increase in heart-rate - Vigorous o Large increase in heart-rate o Race walk, and/or jogging; intensity is increased A Further Distinction - Physical Activity o Exercise every day - Sedentary Behaviours o Spend a lot of time sitting; watching TV - Look at is as a square, with highs and lows for both. o I.e. an “Active couch potato” Cluster Analysis of Health-Related Behaviours Among Adolescents - Study of 14-17 years olds (n=445) in Toronto - Self reported measures of health-related behaviours - Cluster analysis o You look for similar types of individuals (sub-groups with similar health patterns) within large group Physical Activity; Decreased Risk of CAD (Coronary artery disease) - Atherosclerosis o Narrowing of arteries o Slows down/alleviates this - Study of bus drivers (Morris & Raffle, 1954) o Conductors go up and down steps, bus drivers just sit  Conductors rate of CAD is 30% lower than drivers  CAD appeared earlier in the drivers  Conductors more active = less risk of CAD  Drivers more sedentary = increased risk of CAD - Heart disease risk is inversely related to amount of physical activity Ways that PA Influences Cardiovascular Health - Beneficial changes in blood clotting - Large artery elasticity - Decreased blood pressure - Lower resting heart rate o Hearts will be less over-worked o Some marathon runners have resting heart rate of 30 BPM o Aerobic exercise will lower resting heart rate Metabolic Changes Due to PA - Increased: o Fat metabolism o HDL o Insulin sensitivity - Decreased: o Blood lipids o Total cholesterol o LDL PA Decreases Risk of Chronic Diseases - Hypertension - Stroke - Cancer  prostate, breast, colon - Diabetes - Obesity - Arthritis, osteoporosis (weight bearing builds bone), back problems (muscle strength) PA and Mental Health - Decreases anxiety and depression o How:  Positive coping strategy  Locus of control  Improves self-esteem, self concept, body image Biochemical Mechanism - Glasser’s (1976) Positive Addiction o Certain activities you can do can become an addiction Measuring PA - Why is it important? o Specify which aspects of PA are important for a particular health outcome o Prevalence of PA in population o Monitor changes in PA over time o Monitor effectiveness of PA interventions - Consequences of Poor Measurement o Inaccurate estimates of prevalence
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