NUTR 3070 Lecture Notes - Cholesterol, Insulin, Aerobic Exercise

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 3070
Professor
Conceptualizing Physical Activity
Physical Activity; any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in
expenditure of energy
Types of Physical Activity
- Household PA
- Occupational PA
- Transportation PA
- Leisure-time PA
o Above and beyond household, occupational, transportation, in your
“free time”
- Exercise
o Structured, planned, do it for a purpose: enhanced fitness
o Much more structured
o Type of leisure-time physical activity
Classifying Physical Activity by Intensity
- Light
o Walking around, benefits but not tremendous
o Stretching
- Moderate
o Walking a little faster; i.e. when in a hurry
o Dancing
o Bicycling on moderate terrain
o Some increase in heart-rate
- Vigorous
o Large increase in heart-rate
o Race walk, and/or jogging; intensity is increased
A Further Distinction
- Physical Activity
o Exercise every day
- Sedentary Behaviours
o Spend a lot of time sitting; watching TV
- Look at is as a square, with highs and lows for both.
o I.e. an “Active couch potato”
Cluster Analysis of Health-Related Behaviours Among Adolescents
- Study of 14-17 years olds (n=445) in Toronto
- Self reported measures of health-related behaviours
- Cluster analysis
o You look for similar types of individuals (sub-groups with similar
health patterns) within large group
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Physical Activity; Decreased Risk of CAD (Coronary artery disease)
- Atherosclerosis
o Narrowing of arteries
o Slows down/alleviates this
- Study of bus drivers (Morris & Raffle, 1954)
o Conductors go up and down steps, bus drivers just sit
Conductors rate of CAD is 30% lower than drivers
CAD appeared earlier in the drivers
Conductors more active = less risk of CAD
Drivers more sedentary = increased risk of CAD
- Heart disease risk is inversely related to amount of physical activity
Ways that PA Influences Cardiovascular Health
- Beneficial changes in blood clotting
- Large artery elasticity
- Decreased blood pressure
- Lower resting heart rate
o Hearts will be less over-worked
o Some marathon runners have resting heart rate of 30 BPM
o Aerobic exercise will lower resting heart rate
Metabolic Changes Due to PA
- Increased:
o Fat metabolism
o HDL
o Insulin sensitivity
- Decreased:
o Blood lipids
o Total cholesterol
o LDL
PA Decreases Risk of Chronic Diseases
- Hypertension
- Stroke
- Cancer prostate, breast, colon
- Diabetes
- Obesity
- Arthritis, osteoporosis (weight bearing builds bone), back problems (muscle
strength)
PA and Mental Health
- Decreases anxiety and depression
o How:
Positive coping strategy
Locus of control
Improves self-esteem, self concept, body image
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Document Summary

Physical activity; any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in expenditure of energy. Leisure-time pa: above and beyond household, occupational, transportation, in your. Exercise: structured, planned, do it for a purpose: enhanced fitness, much more structured, type of leisure-time physical activity. Light: walking around, benefits but not tremendous, stretching. Moderate: walking a little faster; i. e. when in a hurry, dancing, bicycling on moderate terrain, some increase in heart-rate. Vigorous: large increase in heart-rate, race walk, and/or jogging; intensity is increased. Sedentary behaviours: spend a lot of time sitting; watching tv. Look at is as a square, with highs and lows for both: i. e. an active couch potato . Study of 14-17 years olds (n=445) in toronto. Cluster analysis: you look for similar types of individuals (sub-groups with similar health patterns) within large group. Physical activity; decreased risk of cad (coronary artery disease) Atherosclerosis: narrowing of arteries, slows down/alleviates this.

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