POLS 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Cultural Hegemony, Trilateral Commission, Crystal Eastman

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International relations pt 5
Post-Modernist:
Challenges the assumptions of the world
Orthodox Marxists: economic system (class struggle)
Everything comes down to class struggle such as:
oReligion, ideas, family, class
For an orthodox Marxist: the economic system (class struggle) =
structure
Critical Theory: economic system and ideas
Goes beyond the Marxist understanding, it relates to the POWER of
ideas
Economic forces play a HUGELY important role in determing the way
things are in the world, ALTHOUGH power of ideas underlines
everything as well
Postmodern Theory: just ideas
Critical Theorists
1. Antonio Grahnsci
Italian philosopher, communist
Inspired by Marx, but tried to go beyond Marxism
Interested in non-economic factors….power of ideas
Power of ideas of capitalism, mostly interested in
dominant(hegemonic) ideas
Disagreed with Marxists: believed he was wrong that economic
factors play a role
Capitalism requires an ideological force = cultural hegemony
False consciousness (working class was tricked into
seeing things that weren’t actually true):
Cultural hegemony: leaves people to think in certain ways, but
these people don’t see alternatives
oExample: taught by your parents, schools, governments,
industries, if you’ve been taught by all these forces that
they are hierarchal, you might reach a point that NOTHING
ELSE is hierarchal (that is the power of cultural hegemony
 can’t imagine other alternatives)
2. Louis Althusser
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Also improves Marx theory
Interested in non-economic factors
Wrote that capitalism was maintained or reproduced by two
forces:
1. RSA - Repressive State Apparatus
oThings that use FORCE to keep order
2. ISA - Ideological State Apparatus
oDOESN’T USE FORCE to keep order, uses the power of
ideas to keep order such as…religious organizations,
media, school, the way family works
3. Robert Cox
Also talks about power of ideas,
Tension between capitalism and hegemonic ideas
Critiques the realist and liberals  there mistakes
Famous line “theory is always four sum one – and four some
purpose”
oTheory does not exist in an ethical and moral way, it serves
an agenda….theory serves SOMEONES agenda
4. Stephen Gill
Also inspired by grahnski
Focused mostly on HOW the current hegemonic ideas come into
existence and where they come from
Organic intellectuals:
oTrilateral commission: brings together former government
politicians and leaders
o
Traditional intellectuals:
oAn alternative way of thinking, on trade, political issues
o“cut through the bull-shit and get right to the truth”
Marx criticized Gill for giving TOO much emphasize on the power of
ideas, accused him of almost being a post-modernist
Post-Modern Theorists
1. Michael Foucalt
“power of discourse” Discourse Theory:
ostudy of prisons, architecture, social regulation
over time, there were patterns and themes to the way people
October 22, 2015 – missed class due to illness again – stomach ?u – notes
from someone else
1. Richard Ashley
Is a post-positivists: rejects the idea of objective reality (outside knowledge)
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oThe biases, prejudices and ways of thinking SHAPE what you SEE AND PERCEIVE
oIdeas have power,
Positivists: THERE IS object reality
Post-Modern Critiques for Realists
1. Ethnocentrism - Realists
Kind of like realists because they judge other cultures, such as religion, language etc
2. Chronocentrism - Realists
One group thinks they are more superior to other groups
Realists think that they are more superior to the liberals
3. Fault Discourse - Realists
The implications of the terminology that realists use
The realists use terminology to describe things like war, that is MISLEADING
Counter force: your strategy targets the weapons of the other side, attacking their
submarines… the bombaries. Fighting against the enemies weapons
Counter value: destroy their cities and populations
Post-Modern Critiques for Liberals
1. Faulty Discourse
2. Self-Delusional
Believe they found a better solution for things
Post-Modern Critiques for Marxist
1. Names change, games remain the same:
Johan Galtung:
Theory of imperialism:
when two countries are linked together, if the living condition gap between them grows
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