PSYC 1000 Lecture 20: psych notes - module 20 - oct 21.docx
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Psych Module 20-Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning
Associative Learning- learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli
(as in classical conditioning)) or a response and its consequence (As in operant conditioning).
Stimulus-any event or situation that evokes a response.
Cognitive learning-the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by
watching others, or through language.
Classical conditioning-a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and
Behaviourism-the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies
behaviour without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with
1 but not 2.
Respondent behaviour- behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
Neutral stimulus (NS)-in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before
Unconditioned response (UR)- in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring
response (salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (such as food).
Unconditioned stimulus (US)- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally
and automatically-triggers a response (UR).
Conditioned response (CR)- “ “ “ A learned response to a previously neutral (but now
conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Conditioned stimulus (CS)-in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)
Acquisition- “ “ “, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned
stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant
conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Higher-order conditioning-a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning
experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned
stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that
a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (aka second order conditioning)
Extinction-the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an
unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant
conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous recovery-the reappearance, after a pause of an extinguished conditioned
Generalization-the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for a stimuli similar to the
conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
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