PSYC 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Classical Conditioning, Tantrum, Reinforcement

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16 Feb 2016
Department
Course
Professor
PSYC*1000
Lecture 4
21/10/15
Lesson 4: Chapter 6
Overview
What is learning?
Basics of classical conditioning
Processes of classical conditioning
Applications of classical conditioning
Basics of operant conditioning
Applications of operant conditioning
Classical and operant conditioning
Biological in"uences on learning
Cognitive in"uences on learning
Observational learning
______________________________________________________________________________
What is Learning?
Two “processes of change” in our development:
oMaturation
oLearning
Learning – a process by which behavior or knowledge changes as a
result of experiences
Allows us to adapt to environment
Three types:
oClassical conditioning
oOperant conditioning
oCognitive conditioning
Classical Operant Cognitive
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PSYC*1000
Lecture 4
21/10/15
Conditioning Conditioning Learning
How it
works
- after repeated
exposure to two
stimuli occurring in
sequence, we
associate those
stimuli with each
other
- we learn to
associate our
response
(behaviour) with
consequences
- acquiring new
behaviours and
information
mentally, rather
than by direct
experience
Result
- our natural
response to one
stimulus is now
triggered by new,
predictive stimulus
- we learn to
repeat behaviours
that were followed
by good results
and to avoid
behaviours that
were followed by
bad results
Example
- see lightning
(stimulus 1), hear
thunder (stimulus 2)
- after repetition, we
learn to cover our
ears to lightning to
avoid sound of
thunder
- a child learns to
say please
(response) in order
to get a cookie
(good
consequence)
- learns to avoid
grabbing cookie
(response)
because this led to
scolding and no
cookie (bad
consequence)
- observing events
and behaviour of
others
- using language to
acquire
information about
events
experienced by
others
_____________________________________________________________________________
Basics of Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s discovery
oWhile studying digestion in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that
salivation was eventually triggered by neutral stimuli that
predicted the arrival of food, such as
Just seeing the food/dish
Seeing the person who brought the food
Just hearing the person’s footsteps
o
Before
conditioning
Neutral stimulus = a stimulus which does not trigger a
response
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PSYC*1000
Lecture 4
21/10/15
Unconditioned stimulus = a stimulus which triggers a
response naturally, before/without any conditioning
o
During
conditioning:
The bell (neutral stimulus) is repeatedly presented with
the food (unconditioned stimulus)
o
After
conditioning
The dog salivates upon hearing the bell, or the neural
stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus
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