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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Jeffrey Yen

PSYC 1000 12/09/2012 History of Psychology Module 1 Origins • Originated from Germany in the last 19 century • “Great men” histories • Psychology arose when people started to question themselves as individuals • There was progress when you read about the history of psychology due to technology and such • From speculation to science: The Birth of Modern Psychology o Aristotle (4th century BCE) asked questions to understand the relationship between body and psyche o His way of answering those questions was to observe people carefully and through his observations he would makes guesses and assumptions about people. o The difference between Aristotle and psychologist now is that the process of research is different. o The research population was significantly smaller when Aristotle was doing his research • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)added two key elements to help make psychology as science: 1. Carefully measure observations 2. Experiments • One of his first experiments in 1879 was make people push a button when a ball dropped (based on when they heard the ball hit a platform): 1/10 th of a second • He then made the same group of people push a button when they were consciously aware of hearing the ball hit the platform: 2/10ths of a second • Wundt’s Volkerpsychologie • He is the father of psychology as a science • Focused on mental phenomena that were products of social groups • “cultural products” e.g. language, art, customs • Can’t be examined by experiment or introspection • Individuals can’t be understood apart from these … • Trying to find how to study the mind • Structuralism o Titchener, like his teacher Wilhelm Wundt, relief on “self-report” data. He had engaged in introspection and coined the term structuralism. o Track your thoughts and feelings… o Tried to use these introspective reports to build a view of the minds structures. He called this view structuralism. o Approach of trying to understand piece of the mind o i.e. Freud had a structuralism approach (id, ego, superego) • Functionalism o More then the content of the mind but more about the process o William James (1842-1910) developed functionalism. o He studied human thoughts, feelings and behaviours. o He wrote the principal of psychology and he’s religious experiences o James mentored Mary Whiton Calkins • Psychology Pionner o Mary Whiton Calkins (1862-1930) became a researcher and the first female president of APA o She studied with William James but was denied a Harvard PhD because she
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