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Lecture 19

PSYC*2330 Lecture 19.pdf

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Tuesday April 3, 2012 PSYC*2330 Lecture 19 Week 10 - learning formation in the brain - theoretical approach - practical approach The Nature of Learning - you learn because you are capable of creating memories - the brain has changed to represent a memory - Learning is the process by which experiences change our nervous system. These changes are referred as memories. - Changes in the circuits that participate in perceiving, performing, thinking, and planning. - Donald Hebb (1949) The organization of Behaviour - Proposed a theory explaining how stimuli are represented in the brain MA (1932): Conditioned and Unconditioned Reflexes and Inhibition - Spinal reflexes are the results of prenatal Pavlovian conditioning - Analysis of neural learning mechanisms underlying Pavlovian conditioning, inspired by the rule of contiguity - very important about events occurring at the same time (contiguity) - activity that occurs at the same time and is capable of changing systems Neurological Description of the Neural Mechanism “ Let us assume then that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or “trace”) tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its stability. The assumption can be precisely states as follows: When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently take a part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that Aʼs efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased” (Hebb Rule) Important Idea: a connection between two neurons takes place only if both neurons are firing at about the same time - 2 cells connected (A and B), this connection can change - become stronger - if it becomes stronger (changed by experience) you have a simple representation of how an event can change your brain to make a memory - if A keeps firing and activating B, something will happen such that next time you stimulate A and record B you will get a large response from B - the connection between the neurons will become stronger ONLY if they are activated at the same time Hebb Synapse - a biological system that follows the Hebb Rule Hebb Rule - If a synapse repeatedly becomes active at about the same time the post-synaptic neuron fires, changes will take place in the structure or chemistry of the synapse that will strengthen it - first need a motor neuron to make the response (red neuron in the picture) - US sensory neuron = puff to the eye, CS sensory neuron = tone - the tone neuron has a weak relationship at first with the motor neuron but as you condition them (present them at the same time) you will get a conditioned relationship - Synapse T becomes stronger - there are 2 neurons that are always active at the same time and because of that something changes between them and the connection becomes stronger - motor and CS sensory neuron are activating at the same time and Synapse T changes
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