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Lecture 2- September 11th.doc

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Lecture 2 September 11 , 2012 Question: Behaviourism argued that real progress in the field of psychology would occur if psychologists would limit their study to: Answer: Directly observable and measurable verbal and motor behaviours that could be independently verified. Goal Directed Behaviours- set of responses usually in relation to environmental stimuli (goals). - Instinctual- genetically programmed behaviours that occur when circumstances are appropriate and require no learning. - Learned- behaviors that are adapted to the environment, are relatively flexible and open to modifications. MOST BEHAVIOURS ARE A BLEND OF THE TWO. Instinct Theories • Instincts= motivators of behavior- impulses coming from within the organism that lead to initiation of behavior (modesty, jealousy, etc) • There is one type of energy or different types for different behaviors. There is a variety of signals in the environment to determine behaviors. • Ethology- instincts have survival value and are controlled by genes (not learned). But they differ in terms of degree of sensitivity to changes in the environment. (1) Appetitive- searching behavior that is flexible, adapted to the environment and subject to modification through learning. Ex) Juno moving the cup for food. (2) Consummatory- fixed patterns of responding to specific stimuli. These behaviors are rigid, insensitive to the environment, highly stereotyped and independent from learning. They are known as Fixed Action Patterns. Ex) Chewing All behaviors need a stimulus and some energy. Stimulus • Sign (key) stimulus- required for a behavior to occur. Ex) Dog hears an ambulance and barks or the bird grabs the egg (key stimuli) to
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