September 11 , 2012
Question: Behaviourism argued that real progress in the field of psychology would occur if
psychologists would limit their study to:
Answer: Directly observable and measurable verbal and motor behaviours that could be
Goal Directed Behaviours- set of responses usually in relation to environmental stimuli (goals).
- Instinctual- genetically programmed behaviours that occur when circumstances are
appropriate and require no learning.
- Learned- behaviors that are adapted to the environment, are relatively flexible and open to
MOST BEHAVIOURS ARE A BLEND OF THE TWO.
• Instincts= motivators of behavior- impulses coming from within the organism that lead to
initiation of behavior (modesty, jealousy, etc)
• There is one type of energy or different types for different behaviors. There is a variety of
signals in the environment to determine behaviors.
• Ethology- instincts have survival value and are controlled by genes (not learned). But they
differ in terms of degree of sensitivity to changes in the environment.
(1) Appetitive- searching behavior that is flexible, adapted to the environment and subject to
modification through learning. Ex) Juno moving the cup for food.
(2) Consummatory- fixed patterns of responding to specific stimuli. These behaviors are rigid,
insensitive to the environment, highly stereotyped and independent from learning. They are
known as Fixed Action Patterns. Ex) Chewing
All behaviors need a stimulus and some energy.
• Sign (key) stimulus- required for a behavior to occur. Ex) Dog hears an ambulance and
barks or the bird grabs the egg (key stimuli) to