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Lecture 13

Tuesday, Oct 23/2012 - Lecture 13

4 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

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Tuesday, October 23 Lecture PSYC 2330 Operant Conditioning • The bond is made between signal and response because there is a relationship between the signal, response and a biologically relevent stimulus • The signal is an indication of the biologically relevent stimulus • You learned through classical conditioning that the mcdonalds sign is associated with mcdonalds food • It is almost impossible to discuss operant conditioning and classical conditioning separately • Three key components: Stimulus, Response, and Reinforcer Example • Stimuli (S): Visual stimulus, smell etc... american cigarettes look and smell different than canadian cigarettes, the bar's context or smoke break context. ◦ All are stimuli that can be responded to, but only one stimulus is the operant stimulus that you truly respond to ◦ The cigarette itself is the operant stimulus because that is what you operate on – your response is done to the cigarette ◦ All the other stimuli that are predictive of the cigarette are conditioned stimuli • Operant Response (R): ◦ Response to conditioned stimuli are conditioned response ◦ The response is the smoking of the cigarette – the response is done on the cigarette, you are operating on the cigarette • Biologically Significant Stimuli (S*): ◦ Nicotine or tobacco in this example ◦ It is difficult to demonstrate self-administration of nicotine, and to demonstrate conditioned place preference with nicotine Reinforcing Stimuli • Primary Reinforcers ◦ They are called primary reinforcers because they generally do not require learning to realize their benefit ◦ These can also be called unconditioned stimuli ◦ Stimli needed for survival (eg. Food, water, sex) ◦ Stimui that mimic the effects of food, water and sex in the brain (ie. Drugs) ◦ Sensory stimulation and novelty ▪ Something novel that stimulates you (eg.. Relieves boredon) is a primary need • Secondary Reinforcers or Conditioned Reinforcers ◦ Aprevious neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity of strengthen responses because it has been repeatedly paired with food or with some other primary reinforcer ◦ This is the definition used in Pavolvian conditioning as well ◦ Monkeys trained to trade tokens for bananas began treating the tokens like food, for example, hiding their tokens and stealing them from other monkeys • Social Reinforcers ◦ Stimuli whose reinforcing properties derive uniquely from the behaviour of other members of the same species: praise, affection, attention. They are usually a blend of primary and secondary reinforcers (eg. Smiling, the word good) ◦ We have a sensitivity to the behaviour of conspecifics ◦ It can be negative, but it would be odd to call it a reinforcer. It is in a way, because it alters behaviour, but generally negative reinforcement is called punishment. ◦ Social reinforcers can lead to rapid behaviour modification • There is a difference between how you respond to stimuli and how you feel about the stimuli. ◦ The brain treats these two portions differently and we will too Conditioned Reinforcers and Shaping • How do you train a rat to press a lever? • The lever is the stimulus • The response is pressing the stimulus • The biologically significant stimulus/reinforcer is the pellet • Wait until the rat presses the lever by accident and then present a pellet? ◦ You'll be waiting forever ◦ The process of training a rat is called shaping ◦ The first thing is to make the animal hungry by food restrict them ▪ You need a drive in order to learn ◦ Then you put the animal in the chamber and the animal is generally moving around and active because they have been food restricted ◦ They may press the lever by mistake, but then how do they know that the lever is related to the food dispensing? ◦ You press the lever and the food is released ▪ The animal will then become classically conditioned to the sound of the food dispenser dropping the food ▪ You have now established a reliable CS ◦ Now you place the rat in the chamber and you wait ▪ If the animal is looking at you, look back ▪ When the animal faces the lever, press the clicker to make the food appear ▪ Now you have taught the animal to look at the lever for food ◦ Now you put the rat in the chamber without feeding for looking ▪ When the animal approaches the lever, you release the food ◦ Then you present food when the animal touches the lever ◦ Then one day, the animal will also presses lever ▪ When the lever is pressed, the sound of the food dropp
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