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Lecture 18

Thursday, Nov 8/2012 - Lecture 18

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PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

Thursday, November 8/2012 PSYC 2330 Lecture 18 Escape and avoidance are forms of? a. positive reinforcement b. negative reinforcement c. punishment d. omission e. it depends on the context I answer e Positive Punishment • Positive punishment means the presentation of stimulus that reduces the frequency of behaviour • Presentation of an aversive stimulus • Correction comes in when an unwanted behaviour surfaces • Punishment has an impact on the way an organism feels • Often simply referred to as punishment Is Punishment Effective? • Lever pressing in rats ◦ Cummulative responsive, once the line is flat, it means that respoding has stopped ◦ The steeper the slope, the faster the response rate ◦ Skinner trained rats to lever press for sucrose ◦ Tried to enhance the effect of extinction by adding punishment ◦ Punishment was administered only at the beginning of the session ◦ Punishment was slapping the paw of the rat for touching the lever ◦ Punishment group showed less responding at first than the control group (ie. On the first day only) ◦ Punishment group showed equal responding to the control group after the first day ◦ Punishment only had a temporary effect on reducing behaviour, not a permanent one • Same experiment performed with foot shock instead of paw slapping ◦ Shock strength is varied to change the intensity of the punishment ◦ From this study, it was concluded that punishment was effective, but it has to be at the correct intensity ◦ However, does this experiment show that the animal learned anything? ▪ No, the animal cannot perform any behaviour when they have received that intense a shock (>120V) • Self-injurious behaviour in humans ◦ Attempting to modify self-injurious behaviours in children withAutism, childhood schitzophrenia etc... ◦ Children can die from self-destructive behaviour ◦ Child was given a mild foot shock each time they perform a self-destructive behaviour ◦ In this case, punishment worked ◦ The behaviour was extreme, which is why the extreme route was allowed to be tried ◦ Numbers represent the person in the room, 1 always represents the same experimenter ◦ At first, the child associates the shock with the person who gave it to them ◦ When the experimenter who gave the child the shock is not in the room, the behaviour returns ◦ The child must experience the foot shock from multiple experimenters in order for it to generalize • Many of the original experiments about punishment come from Skinner Principles • Intensity ◦ Self-mutilation prevented by intense shocks and then by secondary punishment ◦ The pigeons of Azrin, Holz and Hake (1963): 60 or 80 volts? ▪ Punish pigeons with 80 volts for pecking a light ▪ Not dead, just not pecking ▪ Punished pigeons with 60 volts for pecking a light ▪ Pigeons didn't stop responding ▪ Pigeons given 80 volts after and pigeons didn't top responding ▪ Pigeons continued to peck until given 300 volts ▪ The principle is if you use a mild punishment that doesn't work, the subject becomes tolerant to the punishment and so you have to pursue much higher extremes to stop behaviour ▪ The idea is that if you punish a child and it is too mild, the behaviour will persist and the behaviour will persist until the punishment is much more severe ◦ When the punisher administers the shock, they become a conditioned stimulus to punishment (ie. Conditioned punisher) ◦ Conditioned punisher leads to the lack of behaviour in the presence of the individual/stimuli • Delay ◦ Dogs (Soloman et al., 1968) and children (Aronfreed 1968) ▪ 0 seconds – effective ▪ 5 seconds – not effective ▪ The organism attempts to discern which behaviour led to the punishment ◦ Experiment details from above ^ ▪ Sit with two options beside you ▪ On one side is regular pet valu dog food in large quantities ▪ On the other side is fillet mignon ▪ Led the dog in ▪ If the animal consumed the preferred food, they were punished by being hit with a newspaper ▪ Varied the delay of punishment ▪ Then allowed the animal in the room with no experimenter and measured how long it took for the dog to consume the preferred food ▪ Group that was punished after 15 seconds, the dog ate the preferred food after 3 minutes ▪ Group that was punished after 5 seconds, the dog resisted eating the preferred for 8 days ▪ Group that was punished immediately went without eating the preferred food for 2 weeks • Schedule ◦ Must be continuous schedules ◦ Doesn't work on variable schedules ◦ If you miss a time or two, you have undone all the work done • Stimulus Control ◦ Experimenter effect in Lovaas ◦ eg. When mom is here, she will not approve of eating iced cream, but when dad is here I can eat any amount of iced cream I want • Verbal explanation ◦ If you explain why the punishment was delivered, you can fill the gap between time and punishment ◦ Verbal explanations can help reduce behaviour when administering punishment Side Effects of Punishment • 1. Fear and anxiety ◦ Not clear on the difference between fear and anxiety • 2. Reduced interest ◦ If you have a child that doesn't want to go to dance, punishing them for not wanting to go will make them want to go even less ◦ Punishing for not performing a task will make the task even less interesting • 3. Impaired attention ◦ If you instill fear and anxiety in a subject, they ca
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