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Chapter 3 and Appendix A.docx

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PSYC 2360
Dan Meegan

Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 1 Chapter 3: Ethical Research Milgrams Obedience Experiment:  He placed an ad in the local newpaper in New Haven, Connectitut, offering to pay $4.50 to men to participate in a scientific study of memory and learning.  Conducted at Yale  The scientist explained that the study would examine the effects of punishment on learning  One person would be a “teacher” who would administer the punishmentand the other would be the learner  Mr Wallace was always the learner and the volunteer was always the teacher  The scientist attached electrodes to mr Wallace and placed the teacher in front of an impressive looking shock machine.  The first leveller was labeled 15 volts, the second 30 volts, the third 45 v, and so on up to 450 volts  Everytime Mr. Wallace made a mistake with the word pairs, the teacher was to deliver a shock as punishment.  When the teacher would get frustrated as the volts went up, the scientist told the teacher that he could quit but urged him to continue, using a serious of verbal prods that stressed the importance of continuing the experiment.  About 65% of the participants continued to deliver shocks all the way to 450 volts The Belmont Report  This report defined the principles and applications that have guided more detailed regulations and the American Psychological Association Ethics Code.  3 basic ethical principles are beneficence, respect for persons (autonomy), and justice. Assessment of Risks and Benefits  beneficence: the need for research to maximize benefits and minimize any possible harmful effects of participation.  In decisions about the ethics of research, we must calculate potential risks and benefits that are likely to result; this is called a risk benefit analysis  The potential risks to the particpants include such factors as psychological or physical harm and loss of confidentiality;  In addition, the cost of not conducting the study if in fact the proposed procedure is the only way to collect potentially valuable data can be considered  The benefits include direct benefits to the participants, such as an educational benefit, acquisition of a new skill, or treatment for psychological or medical problem Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 2  There are also material beenfits such as a monetary payment, some sort of gift, or even the possibility of winning a prize in a raffle Risks in Psychological Research  It is not difficult to imagine the effect of delivering intense shocks to an obviously unwilling learner. Physical Harm:  Many medical procedure fall in this category  The risks in such procedures require that great care to be taken to make them ethically acceptable Stress  More common than physical stress in psychological stress  Research that asks people to think about the deaths of a parent, spouse or friend or their memories of living through a disaster could trigger a stressful reaction  When stress is possible, it must be asked whether all safeguards have been taken to help participants deal with the stress Loss of Privacy and Confidentiality  Researchers must take care to protect the privacy of individuals.  At a minimum, researchers should protect privacy by keeping all data locked in a secure place  Confidentiality becomes particularly important when studying topic such as sexual behaviour, divorce, family violence  In some research, there is a real need to be able to identify individual participants. This occurs when individuals are studied on multiple occasions over time, or when personal feedback, such as a test score, must be given  In some cases, the risks entailed with loss of confidentiality are so great that researchers may wish to apply for a Certificate of Confidentiality from the US Department of Health and Human Services  Another privacy issue concerns concealed observation of behaviour. Researchers make observations of behaviour in public places. If a researcher wishes to observe behaviour in more private settings or in ways that may violate individuals’ privacy  Middlemist, Knowles, and Matter measured the time on onset of urination and the duration of urination of males in restrooms at a college.  One can question whether the invasion of privacy was justified Informed Consent  Autonomy: (Belmont Report) Principle that research should have beneficial effects while minimizing any harmful effects Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 3  Informed consent: the principle that participants in an experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might influence their decision to participate. Informed Consent Form  Participants are usually provided with some type of informed consent form that contains the information that participants need to make their decision  The content will typically cover o The purpose of the content and format o Procedures that will be used including time involved o Risks and benefits o Any compensation o Confidentiality o Assurance of voluntary participation and permission to withdraw o Contact information for questions Autonomy Issues  Lack of Autonomy;  When minors are asked to participate a written consent form signed by a parent/guardian is required in addition to the consent of the minor. This is called assent.  Coercion is another threat to autonomy . Any procedure that limits an individual’s freedom to consent is potentiall coercive. Information Issues: Withholding Information and Deception.  It is generally acceptable to withhold information when the information would no affect the decision to participate and when the information will later be provided  There are research procedures in which informed consent is not necessary or even possible  If you chose to observe the number of same sex and mixed sex study groups in your library, you probably don’t need to announce your presence and obtain anyones permission  Deception occurs when there is active misrepresentation of information.  The Milgram experiment illustrates 2 types of deception o First, there was deception about the purpose of the study. Participants of the study didn’t know what they were in for. o Knowledge that they research is designed to study obedience would likely alter behaviour of the participants. o It is also possible that the informed consent procedure may bias the sample. If participants has prior knowledge that they would be asked ot give shocks, some might have declined to be in the experiment.  Procedures in which observers conceal their purposes, presence, or identity are also deceptive Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 4 Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in Psychological Research?  Broder argues that the extreme examples of elaborate deception cited by these critics are rare.  There is evidence that the college students who participate in research do not mind deception  Because most of the concern over this type of deception arises in social psychological research, attempts to address this issue have focused on social psychology  Sieber, Ianbuzzo, and Rodriguez (1995) examined the studies published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The number of studies that used some form of deception decreased from 66% in 1969 to 47% in 1978  The large drop in 1986 may be due to an increase that year in the number of studies on sch topics as personality that require no deception to carry out.  Informed consent was more likely to be explicitly described in 1992 than in previous years, and debriefing was more likely to be mentioned in the years after 1969  There are 3 primary reasons for a decrease in the type of elaborate deception seen in the Milgram study o First, more researchers have become interested in cognitive variables rather than emotions and so use methods that are similar to those usedes by researchers in memory and cognitive psycology o Second, the general level of awareness of ethical issues as described in this chapter has lead to researchers to conduct studies in other ways. o Third, ethics comitees at universities an colleges now review proposed research more carefully, so elaborate deception is likely to be approved only when the resesearch is important and there are no alternative procedures available The Importance of Debriefing  Debriefing occurs after the completion of the study. It is an opportunity for the researchers to deal with issues of withholding information, deception, and potential harmful effect of participation  If the research aletered a participants physical or psychological state in some way, the researcher must make sure that the participant has calmed down and is confortable about having participated.  The participants should leave the experiment without any ill feelings toward the field of psychology  Debriefing also provides and opportunity for the researcher to explain the purpose of the study and tell participants what kinds of results are expected  Milgram: Participants who were obedient were told that their behabiour was normal in that they had acted no differently from most othdr participants  They were assured that there was no shock actually delivered. He also mailed a report of his research findings to the participants and at the same time asked about their reactions to the experiment Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 5 Alternatives to Deception  Role playing, simulation studies (a variation on role playing) and honest experiments. Role playing  Role playing: the experimenter describes the situation to participants and then asks them how they would respons to the situation  Not considered a satisfactory alternative to deception o One problem is that simply reading a description of a situation, the experimenter’s hypothesis may become transparent to the participants. o The most serious defect of role playing Is that, no matter what results are obtained, critics can always claim that the results would have been different if the participants had been in a real situation o This criticism is based on the assumption that people aren’t always able to accurately predict their own behaviour or the behaviour of others Simulation Studies  Simulations can be used to examine conflict between competing individuals, driving behaviour using driving simulators, or jury deliberations  Even with simulations, there may be ethical problems. A dramatic example is the standford prison experiment conducted by Zimbardo.  This was only a stimulation—participants knew that they were not really prisoners and guards Honest Experiments  Rubin encourage researchers to take advantage of situations in whivh behaviour could be studied without elaborate deception  In the first such strategy, participants agree to have their behaviour studied and know exactly what the researchers hope to accomplish  A related strategy presents itself when people see out information or services that they need  Another strategy presents itself when people seek out information or services that they need.  Another strategy involves situations in which a naturally occurring event presents an opportunity for research Justice and the Selection of Participants  Justice: The third ethical principle defined in the Belmont Report  The principle os justice addresses issues of fairness in receiving the benefits of research as well as bearing the burdens of accepting risks Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 6  One of the most horrific is the Tiskegee Syphilis Study in which 399 poor African Americans in Alabama were not treated for syphilis in order to track the long term effects of this disease  The jsutic principle requires researchers to address issues of equity.  Any decisions to include or exclude certain people from a research study must be justified on scientific grounds Research Commitments  Researchers make several implicit “contracts” with participants during the course of a study  If participants agree to be present for a study at a specific time, the researcher should be there  If participants are to receive course credikt for participation, the researcher must immediately let the instructor know that the person took part in the study Federal Regulations and the Institutional Review Board  Institutional Review Board (IRB): An theics review committee established to review research proposals. The IRB is composed of scientists, nonscientists, and legal experts  The federal regulation for IRB oversight of research continue to evolve.  For ex, all researchers must now complete educational requirements  The HHS regulations also categorize research according to the amount of risk involved in the research. This concept of risk was later incorporated into the Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association Exempt Research  Research that involves only anonymous questionnaires, surveys, and educational tests is exempt, as is naturalistic observation in public places when there is no threat to anonymity  There must be an institutional mechanism to determine that the research is in fact exempt  Researchers cannot decide by themselves that research is exempt Minimal Risk Research  Minimal risk: the risks of harm to participants are no greater than risks encountered in daily life or in routine physical or psychological tests  When minimal risk research is being conducted, elaborate safeguards are less of a concern, and approval by the IRB is routine.  Some of the research activities considered minimal risk are o 1. Recording routine physiological data from adult participants o 2. Moderate exercise by healthy volunteers o 3. Research on individual or group behaviour or characteristics of individuals in which the researcher doesn’t manipulate participants’ behavior and the research will not involve stress to participants. Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 7 Greater than Minimal Risk Research  Any research procedure that places participants at greater than minial risk is subject to thorough review by the IRB  This application requires description of risks and benefits, procedures for minimizing risk, the exact wording of the informaed concent form, how participants will be debriefed, and procedures for maintaining confidentiality.  Even after a project is approved. There is continuing review IRB Impact on Research  The policies and procedures rhat govern IRB operations apply to all areas of research, so the extreme caution necessary for medical research is applied to psychology research  With the HHS regulations and review of research by the IRB, the rights and safety og human participants are well protected APA Ethics Code  Psychologists recognize that ethical issues we have discussed, and the Maerican Psychological Association (APA) has provided leadership in formulating ethical principles and standards.  5 general principles relate to beneficence, responsibility, integrity, justice, and respect for the rights and dignity of others. Research with Human Participants  The sections of Theical Standard 8 that most directly deal with research involving human participants are included below: o 8.01 Insitutional approval: When institutional approval is required, psychologists provide accurate information about their research proposals and obtain approval prior to conducting the research o 8.02: Informed consent to Research a) Obtaining informed consent as required in Standard 3.10, Informaed Consent, psychologists inform participants about (1) the purpose of the research, expected duration, and procedures; (2) their right to decline to participate and to withdraw from research; (3) the foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing; (4) reasonably foreseeable factors that may be expected to influence their willingness to participate such as potential risks; (5) any prospective research benefits (REST ON PAGE 54) o 8.03 Informed concent for recording voices and images in research o ON PAGE %$) o 8.4: Client/Patient, student, and subordinate research participants o 8.05: Dispensing with Informed consent for research Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 8 o 8.06 Offering inducements for research participation o 8.07 Deception in research o 8.08 Debriefing  These standards complement the HSS regulations and the Belmont Report.  However, fully informed concent may not always be possible, and deception may sometimes be necessary Ethics and Animal Research  The researcher can carefully control the environmental conditions of the animals, study the same animals over a long period, and monitor their behaviour 24 hours a day  Animals are also used to test the effects of drugs and to study physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying behaviour  Most commonly, psychologists work with mice and rats, and birds  Animal rights groups have staged protests at conventions of the American Psychological Association, and animal research labs I numerous cities have had animals stolen by members of these groups.  Scientists argue that animal research benefits humans and point to many discoveries that would not have been possible without animal research  Plous conducted a national survey of attitudes toward the use of animals in research and education among psychologists and student were quite similar.  Females have less positive views toward animal research than males.  Plous concluded that animal research in psychology will continue to be important for the field but will likely continue to decline as a proportion of the total amount of research conducted  Such regulations deal with animals and teaching procedures in which animals are used  Institutions in which animal research is carried out must have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) composed of at least one scientist, one vet, and a community member THE IACUC is charged with reviewing animal research procedures and ensuring that all regulations are adhered to.  8.09 Human Care and use of animals in Research (PAGE 57) Risks and Benefits Revisited  Study conducted by Cohen, Nisbett, Bowdle and Schwarz, compared the reactions of college students living in the northern US with those of students living in the southern US  The purpose was to investigate whether males in the South has developed “culture of honor” that expects them to respond aggressively when insulted  Researchers have sufficiently minimized risks to the participants such that the benefits out weighed the costs.  If you decide that the costs outweigh the benefits, you must conclude that the study cannot be conducted in its current form Week 3: Chapter 3 and Appendix A 9  If the benefits outweigh the costs, you will likely decide that the research should be carried out Misrepresentation: Fraud and Plagiarism 2 other elements of the Ethics Code should be noted:  8.10 Reporting Research Results a) Psychologists do not fabricate data. b) If psychologists discover significant errors in their published data, they take reasonable steps to correct such errors in a correction, retraction, erratum, or other appropriate publication means  8.11 Plagiarism o Psychologists do not present portions of another’s work or data as their own, even if the other work or data source is cited occasionally Fraud  The fabrication of data is fraud.  It is most serious in 2 areas: science and journalism because science and journalism are both fields in which written reports are assumed to be accurate descriptions of actual events  Most famous case is of Sir Cyril Burt, who reported that IQ scores of identical twins reared apart were highly similar  A number of correlations for different sets of twins were exactly the same to the third decimal place, virtually a mathematical impossibi
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