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Barriers to scientific progress y example: reading disability (dyslexia) Early hypothesis 1930s y dyslexia is a visual problem y characterized by a reversal errors. Confusing b for d or was for saw. Evidence accumulates to support hypothesis: reversals frequent in dyslexics. Problem: tendency to look for confirming evidence (reversals in dyslexics) and ignore disconfirming (reversals in non-dyslexics) Both dyslexics and non-dyslexics make reversal errors. Dyslexics do make more reversal errors but they also make more non-reversal errors. Conclusion: reversals are normal for children during reading acquisition: dyslexics worse on visual perception tasks. Problem: tasks labeled perceptual often involve other processes (eg. memory, attention). Thus poor performance by dyslexics does not prove hypothesis. Testing visual hypothesis tasks on which labeling would be advantageous produce performance difference. Reading disability due to language problem in the phonological domain. U of g expertise professor evans, barron. Precognition: awareness of a stimulus before it is presented.

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