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Lecture 19

PSYC 3100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Jane Goodall, Bonobo, Richard Wrangham


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3100
Professor
Pat Barclay
Lecture
19

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Evolutionary Psychology Lecture 19- New Chimpanzees
Homologies: similar structure due to common ancestor
Analogies: similar outcome in different lineages due to common evolutionary pressures
The New Chimpanzees Video
Chimpanzees are very closely related to humans
Their social life reflects ours; with paramilitary patrols, political struggles for power and
game, even outright wars
The tender affection they show for another, their gestures and expressions, all seem
strongly familiar
Chimpanzees share more than 97% of our genes, and it shows
Jane Goodall was the first human to be accepted by wild chimpanzees. What she
discovered revolutionized our concept of chimps, and of ourselves
A second species of chimpanzees were studied by Takayoshi Kano, called bonobos. They
were famous for their human-like appearance, and the way the substitute sex or
violence, unlike the more aggressive chimps studied by Goodall and Christophe Boesch
Hunting and cooperation
o Christophe Boesch says that chimps are capable of an extraordinary level of
cooperation. Sometimes chimps have to hunt in groups when other mammals
are very small compared to their size, and when they can’t get into the trees to
catch them. The only way to solve this is by hunting in groups
Bonobos
o Females play a very different role in bonobo society than they do among chimps.
The reigns of power are shared equally among males and females, held by a
strong bonded group of high-ranking mothers and their adult sons
o Instead of fighting, bonobos have sex to diffuse aggression. In this genuine
making love not war society, bonobos have largely divorce sex from its
reproductive role. Sex is used by all bonobos, regardless of gender or age, to
form bonds and mitigate tension
How deep is the mind of a chimp?
o To crack nuts the chimps, seem to have grasped the concept of hammer and
anvil. The anvil is a tree root, the hammer and wooden club or sometimes even a
stone. Although it may seem effortless it takes a decade of practice before the
chimps develop real expertise
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