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Lecture 2

Week 2.docx

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PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

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Week Two -Sexual Differentiation 1. Sex genetically determined  At conception  Sex chromosomes i. Male: XY ii. Female XX 2. “Indifferent gonad” develops th th  8 -10 week after fertilization  Male o H-Y antigen influences the gonad tissue into embryonic testes (If there is a Y)  Female o Gonad tissue is organized into ovaries (If there is no Y) 3. Hormones  After degeneration of gonads  Male o Testes secrete testosterone (Androgens)  Female o Ovaries secrete estrogens and progesterone  Hormones can be produced by testes, ovaries, adrenal glands 4. Internal Reproductive Tract  8 -12 week  Male o Vas Deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicle, testes  Female o 5. External Genitalia th  Until 8 week the external genitalia of both sexes appear identical  Males: penis and scrotum  Females: clitoris and labia 6. Areas of the Brain  Different stages of development  Animal studies o Rats and testosterone  When female rats introduced to testosterone, they become primed for testosterone and lose their sensitivity to female hormones and the female reproductive system is lost and starts showing typical male sexual rat behaviour. o Hormonal exposure affects the hypothalamus o Presence of testosterone at a critical period o Rhesus monkeys injected with testosterone show more rough-and-tumble play and threat and did more chasing. o Provides evidence for the link between behaviour and hormones. o Female monkeys who were androgenized smell and sometimes look different than the non- androgenized monkeys.  Human Studies o Sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is a part of the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus.  SDN part of hypothalamus (controls secretion of hormones)  The function of this part of the brain is not clear. Supposed to be larger in males. May be responsible for sexual and maternal behaviour. o Limitations: ethical concerns - Intersex  3 groups  True Gonadal Intersex o One ovary and one testis  46XX o ovaries and partial male genitalia (except testes) eg CAH (Internal female, external male)  46XY o Testes and partial female genitalia (except ovaries) (Internal male, external female) -Intersex Research  Gender role research often focuses on intersexed individuals  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) o Causes adrenal glands to malfunction o Release in excess androgens o Girls born with ovaries and external male genitalia o Is recessive (have 25% chance, each parent has to have the recessive gene) o Effects males and females in equal numbers  Androgen insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) o The individual is partly or completely unable to respond to prenatal androgens o Has high level of androgens but unable to respond o Males have female external genitalia, not female internal reproductive organs (usually testes) - Joan John Case  Two twin boys born  Boys had condition related to their urethra (unable to urinate) needed surgery  One surgery went horribly wrong and the little boys penis was ruined/burnt which led to a useless penis  1967 decide to castrate and build and change this young infant boy into an infant girl  Changed John into Joan identifies as a girl  Raised him as a girl, and determine “gender is only determined by social cues”  When he grew up said always felt like a boy, parents were untruthful to doctors  David Reimer  Late age adolescence decided to identify as a man, married and step-fathered to 3 kids  Around his 30s, wife left, twin brother is schizophrenic, lost job, suicide  Proof that medical community can physiologically reconstruct body and socially can identify as whichever - Caster Semenya  Olympian  Intersex  Took away medal because she presented as female but tested as male  Eventually got medal back - Gender-role behaviour  Ehrhardt and Money, 1967 o 25 androgenized girls and comparison group  Standardized interview o More likely: tomboy, athletic activity, and join boys in play, practical rather than pretty clothes, more interest in a career than a marriage, less interest in dolls o No difference: aggression, sexual orientation, sexual play or interest.  Berenbaum, 1999 o 24 females (CAH) and 18 males (CAH) compared to their same sex siblings o Measured female typical and male typical activities and careers o CAH females significantly different than other females o Concluded early androgen (In Utero) exposure has affect on increasing male typical interest and decreasing female typical interest. o Argues indirect over direct affect – Androgens mixed with your mechanical skills affects interests Mechanical skills Androgens Fishing - Socialization  The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group – the attitudes, values and actions thought appropriate for them  Gender Socialization o The process whereby an individual acquires a gender identify and gendered ways of acting, thinking and feeling  4 major socialization agents o Family o Mass media o Peer group o School - Sources of Early Gender Learning  Parents: the first source of children’s gender learning o They hold and communicate different expectations for boys and girls  Media o TV, video games, the printed word all reinforce gender stereotypes  Language o Contains built-in biases about gender - Parents and gender role  Parental expectations for girls and boys begin to differ even before the child is born  Parents tend to treat children differently in areas that are more specific to gender expectations, such as toys, clothing, and participation in household tasks.  Talk more to daughters and more active with sons.  Seem unaware  Ethnic differences: o African Americans – more group socialization, and more economic responsibility on women there seem to be fewer differences between how they treat boys and girls. - Media and Gender Role  By age 20, the typical Americn adolescent has watched over 600,000 commercials
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