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Lecture 2

Week 2 (Jan 13 & 15 & 17).docx

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PSYC 3300
Carol Anne Hendry

Psych 3300 Jan 13, 15, 17 Week 2 Question of the week: are males and female fundamentally the same? Different? Sex: the biology questions we will try to be answering • What are the biological processes that differentiate human into male and female? • To what extent do physical difference such as hormonal concentrations, have implications for gendered behavior? • What happens when one or more of the biological processes are disrupted? Sexual differentiation 1. Sex genetically determined 2. Indifferent gonad develops into male or female sex glands 3. Gland behind secreting male/ female hormones (both) a. Internal reproductive track b. External genitalia c. Areas of the brain Genetic determination • At conception – we have 46 chromosomes – 23 pairs – 1 chromosome from each male and female • Sex Male xy, Female xx Gonad development • 8 – 10 week after fertilization – we get gonad development that differentiates • Male o H-y antigen influences the gonad tissue into testes • Female o Gonad tissue is organized into ovaries • if it’s there we get testes if not get ovaries (y chromosome) Hormones • after degeneration of gonads • secrete to every cell of the body • male o testes secrete testosterone (androgens –masculine hormones) • female o ovaries secrete estrogens and progesterone • hormones can be produced by testes ovaries, adrenal glands • all three hormones can be produced by both • its not that simple – Internal reproductive tract – hormonal secretion influences this th • 8h- 12 week • Male o Vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles, urethra, and prostrate Psych 3300 Jan 13, 15, 17 Week 2 • Female o Fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina External genitalia th • Completed by the 12 week • Until the 8 week the external genitalia of both sexes appear identical • Males: penis and scrotum • Females: clitoris and labia Areas of the brain • Different stages of development • Animal studies o Rats and testosterone – when exposed early on they were not sensitive to female hormomones but they were to female  they developed male characteristics  showed more male sexual behavior o Hormonal exposure affects the hypothalamus • Human studies o Sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is a part of the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus o Researchers think that hormonal exposure would play out in similar way in humans as in rats o Might influence how the hypothalamus works Animal studies • Presence of testosterone at a critical period – can show more rough and tumble behavior and more sensitivity to threat- females born from monkeys who were injected with testosterone – initiated play much more often than other females born without the injection to their mother- it would escalate more into actual conflict - they did more chasing than others • Provides evidence for the link between behavior and hormones Human studies • Limitations o Ethical concerns Intersex conditions • Usually try to get them to be one sex- usually includes surgery and hormonal treatment – jon something – says latest 18 months do it • 3 groups o True Gonadal intersex  One ovary and one testis half and half o 46xx  Ovaries and partial male genitalia (except testes) e.g CAH • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia • Being raised as young women and successfully for the girls prof met o 46xy  Testes and partial female genatalia (except ovaries) e.g AIS Intersex research Psych 3300 Jan 13, 15, 17 Week 2 • One of the things they are looking for is this connection what we believe is strict biology and how we act later on • Gender role research often focuses on intersexed individuals • They have hormonal imbalance from the moms – maternal stress influence the development of intersex conditions or genetic • CAH – congenital adrenal hyperplasia o Causes adrenal glands to malfunction o Release in excess androgens  From prenatal period onward  Female reproductive organs • Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) o The individual is partly or completely unable to respond to prenatal androgens o High level of androgen but have problem responding to this androgens o They have male internal organs • Joan /John case o Gender changed o Didn’t work January 15, 2014 • The most widely used instrument to measure attitudes toward gender roles is the ATWS - attitudes toward women scale o Develop during the women’s movement of the 60’s and assessed beliefs about the behavior of women and men in domains that have traditionally been divided between them, such as raising children, education, and paid employment. (example: swearing is more repulsive Blooms Taxonomy – for my information only Build on what textbook says – what does intersex mean? • For your additional knowledge DSD – disorder of sexual development • New term for intersex as feel it is more accurate and less stigmatizing than the term intersex Number 1 - david reamer case is most unethical case aka Brenda Caster Semenya • Current example of how society has dealt with intersex individuals • She has female external and male internal • Difficulties around this – athlete Gneder role behavior Ehrhardt & Money 1967 • 25 androgenized girls and comparison group • Standardized interview o More likely: tomboy, athletic activity and join boys in play, practical than pretty clothes, more interest in a career than a marriage, less interest in dolls o No diff: aggression, sexual orientation, sexual play or interest Psych 3300 Jan 13, 15, 17 Week 2 • Berenbaum 1999 o 24 females (CAH) and 18 males (CAH) compared to same sex siblings o Measured female typical and male typpical activities and careers o CAH females significantly different than other females o Concluded early androgen exposure has affect on increasing male typical interest and decreasing female typical interest • Berenbaum argues indirect over direct affect o Mechanical Skills, Androgens, Fishing o Theory  We have prenatal hormones may be indirect to interests  Those who have early exposure to androgens may be more interested by fishing  But this would be lined to mechanical skills – like physical ability to fish o What we argue is androgens may lead to later interest in fishing but really it might also have to with mechanical skills Part 3 Intro into class How to tell if a toy is for boys or girls: a guide? • There is none MADE specifically for the sex although there is one for the gender • When mom at home taking care of kids- just what it is but what happens when the dad is staying at home it is called babysitting o But we say this even though they are parenting Socialization • The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group, the attitudes, values and actions thought appropriate for them • Gender socialization – the process whereby an individual acquires a gender identity and gendered ways of acting, thinking and feeling • 4 major socialization agents! o Family o Mass media o Peer group o School Sources of early gender learning • Parents: first source of children’s gender learning o They hold and communicate different expectations for boys and girls  So if say “dad is babysitting” they can internalize this o Boys more likely to be physically punished than girls o Differences in toys o Females are socialized to be more emotion – same in same-sex marriages o Influence of other people  Great source from outside of the home  Boys play in larger groups – which have potential for conflict and aggression  Girls play in small group – minimize conflict Psych 3300 Jan 13, 15, 17 Week 2  Popular kids show proactive aggression – unprovoked, planned, goal directed, socially motivated –reactive – angry, impulsive response to threat, frustration • Media o Tv, video games, the printed world all reinforce gender stereotypes o Younger kids - sesame street  the tv shows are fairly neutral environment when it comes to gender o 4 and 5 year olds strawberry short cake  meant for girls o As we get older, the tv shows are more likely to show gender stereotypes o Books  Cinderella, sleeping beauty  Females usually not represented to extent males are  Main character – different roles  Non sexist ones- women just have stereotypical male traits  May show her in “male dominated job” but also as nurturant parent o Television  Sexual double standards are shown  Displays a heterosexual script – reflects three themes • Sexual double standard, courtship, commitment –men avoid, women seek o Advertisements  Babies pink girls blue boys  Women also continue to be portrayed as sex objects  In commercials – boys dominant and active girls are shy giggling and deferent • Toy commercials influence how they view toys • Language o Contains built-in biases about gender • We do not know if differences are from sex- we just know as society we hold different expectations for girls and boys Parent and Gender Role • Parental expectations for girls and boys begin to differ even before the child is born • Parents tend to treat children differently in areas that are more specific to gender expectations, such as toys, clothing, and participation in household tasks o Talk more to daughters and more active with sons  We use more emotional language with girls rather than girls! o Seem unaware o Ethnic differences  African American more women perceive to be more enforced in workforce so we see fewer gender stereotypes - tend to have more androgynous messages for their children • We have gender expectations before the child is even born • When don’t have gender and have baby shower-it is difficult to find clothes that are gender neutral Psych 3300 Jan 13, 15, 17 Week 2 Media and gender role • By age 20, the typical American adolescent has watched 600,000 television commercials • Commercials convey stereotypic messages; for example: o Males are the authorities with women underrepresented except for health and beauty product commercials – 2:1 o Female characters are usually more likely to have beautiful bodies and to wear skimpy c
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