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Unit 3.doc

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3480
Dan Yarmey

Tuesday, October 1, 2012 Chapter 4: Motivation and Behavioural Change Common Myths about Motivation and Behavioural Change MYTH: Motivation is a trait. You are either a motivated individual or you are not MYTH: Competence is the main motivator for engaging in physical activity MYTH: Enjoyment is the best motive to help us understand physical activity behaviour Introduction Motivation - the reasons why you do the things you do Approaches to Understanding Motivation For Behavioural Change - three approaches are described briefly below to help understand motivation as it ap- plies to behavioural change Behavioural Approaches - focuses on conditioning, or learning from the environment - operant conditioning - the athlete/exerciser associates behaviours with consequences that are learned through coincidental reinforcement or punishment - vicarious conditioning - results from observing others - operant strategies - such as self-monitoring, are effective for developing and maintain- ing skills, involves recording your own behaviour Cognitive Approaches - emphasizes the role of thought patterns and cognitive habits as determinants of be- haviour - individual is viewed as an active participant - automatic thought processes, cognitive errors, and core beliefs Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches - based on 2 things: (1) our cognitives influence our emotions and behaviour and (2) our behaviour can affect our thought patterns and emotions - approaches including self-monitoring, goal setting, feedback and decision making, have been found to be effective for increasing self-reported exercise behaviour Models of Motivation and Behavioural Change - campaigns to get people more physically active, like ParticipACTION are based on an understanding of the factors that shape the behavioural decisions people make about their health - the primary application of motivational models has been either to predict physical activ- ity behaviour or to describe the thoughts and feelings of people who have engaged in a particular pattern and more recently to get people more active Transtheoretical Model (TM) - emerged to understand how individuals initiate and adopt regular physical activity - proposes that individuals move through a temporal sequence of 5 stages: 1. Pre-contemplation - do not consider exercising in the next 6 months 2. Contemplation - seriously consider exercising in the next 6 months 3. Preparation - making small changes towards become more active 4. Action - begun exercising in the past 6 months 5. Maintenance - exercise have have done so for more than 6 months Factors Influencing Stage Progression Self-Efficacy - the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of ac- tion required to produce specific outcomes Decisional Balance - a multidimensional set of values linked with advantages and dis- advantages of behavioural change Processes of Change - reflect strategies that individuals use to progress through the stages and are divided into 2 dimensions that serve as targets for intervention programs - the first dimension, experiential or cognitive processes, includes strategies used to help an individual modify thought patterns, includes information seeking, reconsidering the consequences of inactivity, the expression of feelings about inactivity, and evaluating the consequences of engaging in physical activity - the second dimension, behavioural processes, includes increased social support for behavioural engagement, the use of rewards and reinforcement, and the use of appro- priate cues for maintaining behaviour (running shoes at the front door) Research on the Transtheoretical Model in Exercise Psychology - 58% of people reported being in the maintenance stage - being female, of non-Caucasian ethnicity and having completed a lower level of educa- tion were generally associated with lower stages of change - greatest risk for relapse was found in the preparation stage, with primary barriers in- cluding time, access to facilities, and limited opportunities outside physical education Application of the Transtheoretical Model - TM holds appeal at an individual and population health level since it includes guide- lines on what information to provide at each stage Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) - highlights personal and social factors that influence behaviour - the most proximal determinant of behaviour is Intention: a person’s readiness to per- form a behaviour - the intention-physical activity behaviour relationship demonstrates temporal fluctuation, with weak relationships between intention and behaviour occurring with distal measures (in the next 3 months) vs proximal measures (in the next week) Attitude - positive or negative evaluation of engaging in a behaviour Subjective Norms - perceived social pressures to perform a behaviour that stem from various personal or environmental sources Perceived Behavioural Control - the extent to which behaviour is volitional and is thought to indirectly affect behaviour through intention as well as being a direct influence Behavioural Beliefs - suggest that being physically active will lead to certain conse- quences and an evaluation of the consequences e.g. exercise enhances fitness and health, improves physical appearance, is fun and enjoyable and promotes social interac- tion Normative Beliefs - reflect perceptions of significant others and the value that they place on physical activity behaviour and consequences e.g. doctors, family, friends Control Beliefs - perceived barriers (e.g. resources) and facilitators (e.g. opportunities) Research on the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Sport and Exercise Psychology - support for the relationships described in the model framework - attitude and perceived behavioural control are strong correlates of exercise intention - subjective norms show weaker but still meaningful associations with exercise inten- tions - there is considerable evidence of the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity in di- verse clinical populations (breast cancer survivors, spinal cord injuries) Applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour - intervention strategies need to focus on enhancing an individual’s intention to exercise - attitude toward physical activity may be increased by increasing the knowledge of the benefits of exercise and the importance of those benefits - target the individual’s perceived behavioural control through a range of strategies, such as highlighting coping skills for dealing with barriers Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) - the belief that individuals are proactively engaged in their own development, with moti- vation viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personal (expectations, values), behavioural (effort, persistence) and environmental (social pressures, motivational cli- mate) influences - there are main constructs embedded within SCT: Observational Learning - individuals learn and acquire behaviour by watching the ac- tions and outcomes of others’ behaviours Goals - behaviour is directed by the goals that individuals have Outcome Expectations - behaviour is a function of the expected positive negative con- sequences associated with a particular behaviour Outcome Expectancies - the expectations that an outcome that is valuable for the indi- vidual will follow a given behaviour Self-Regulation - behaviour is self-directed and is initiated, monitored, and evaluated by the individual in a way that is consistent with accomplishing his or her goals Behavioural Outcome - behaviour is dependent on the individual’s knowledge and skills for performing that behaviour Self-Efficacy - belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainments Social Cognitive Theory: A Focus on Self-Efficacy - the core of SCT is self-efficacy beliefs, which serve as the foundation for human moti- vation, well-being and personal accomplishment - self-efficacy is a situation-specific form of self-confidence that focuses on the extent to which an individual feels he or she will be successful in producing a specific outcome given their skills and the situation - Bandar recognized 4 main personal and environmental ways to ways an individual’s self-efficacy beliefs: 1. Mastery Experience - past performance success and failures 2. Vicarious Experience - modeled behaviours associated with development of and change in self-efficacy, including imagery use and target similarity as key features 3. Social Persuasion - verbal and non-verbal feedback from significant, knowledgeable others 4. Physiological and Affective States - physical and emotional cues associated with per- formance and behaviour Research Linking Social Cognitive Theory Constructs and Sport and Exercise Behav- iour - research has rarely included all SCT dimensions, but for those that have examined multiple constructs, the included variables have accounted for 40-55% of physical activi- ty behaviour Social-Cognitive Theory in Practice - the reciprocal nature of the determinants in SCT make it possible for coaches or health promotion specialists to intervene at personal, environmental or behavioural levels - many health messages and mission statements from Canadian organizations and agencies are founded in SCT-based evidence Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - main focus of the SDT framework is the extent to which behaviours such as sport and exercise participation are undertaken volitionally as opposed to being controlled by some external agent (coach, physician) or contingency (rewards, deadlines) - people are naturally endowed with innate tendencies for personal growth and develop- ment that flourish when social environments provide optimal conditions - comprises of 4 mini theories that collectively inform our understanding of motivated be- haviour, cognition, and affective experiences in various life domains Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) - specifies how various conditions shape (or thwart) the development of intrinsic motivation Organismic Integration Theory (OIT) - the extent to which behaviour is motivated for different extrinsic reasons that represent varying degrees of internalization Causality Orientations Theory (COT) - uses personality-level constructs to describe individual differences in the degree to which people are self-determined as opposed to controlled Basic Needs Theory (BNT) - the fourth subcomponent of the SDT framework and is concerned with the nature and function of psychological needs for competence, autono- my, and relatedness in relation to motivation and well-being Self-Determination Theory: A Focus on Organismic Integration and Basic Needs Theo- ries - OIT and BNT deserve additional attention because they deal with the special nature of motivation in contexts such as sport and exercise - in the framework of OIT that motivation is best understood as a multidimensional con- cept that ranges along a continuum of self-determination, at one end is Amotivation (absence of motivation because not perceived connection between actions and out- comes) and on the other end is Intrinsic Regulation (exercising because it is enjoy- able, interesting, stimulating, and self-rewarding) - 4 different forms of extrinsic motivation are proposed to exist along this continuum External Regulation - the least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation and is con- cerned with exercising or playing sport to fulfill some demand (another person) Introjected Regulation - exercise in an attempt to avoid negative emotions (guilt) or maintain a fragile sense of self-worth Identified Regulation - participation is linked to personally important and valued goals that stem from participation Integrated Regulation - participating because these activities are symbolic of a per- son’s identity - according to Deci and Ryan, all humans have 3 basic psychological needs that when authentically fulfilled facilitate the internalization of behavioural regulation : Competence - feeling effective and capable when undertaking challenging tasks Autonomy - feeling ownership over behaviour such that one’s actions stem from a sense of perceived choice and internal control Relatedness - feeling meaningful connections with others in environments such as sport and exercise Research Linking Self-Determination Theory and Sport and Exercise Behaviour - research has supported Deci and Ryan’s arguments given observations that the greater endorsement of self-determined motives is associated with increased effort in physical education classes and intention to be physically active, exercise intensity, and training outcomes - according to basic needs theory, the fulfillment of each psychological need is most like- ly to be associated with greater internalization and more self-determined than controlled motivation Self-Determination Theory in Practice - applications can focus on interactional style used by the coach to work with athletes - interactional style is characterized by autonomy support, structure and involvement Autonomy Support - the provision of choices and options and the reduction of pres- sure Structure - the provision of appropriate feedback and the clarification of expectations to be derived from behav
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