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SOAN 2111 Lecture Notes - Linear Motor, Social Inequality, Aristocracy

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

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October 1, 2012 SOAN 2111/2
Hobbes (Compared to Rosseau) 1588 1679
- without a strong ruler human society is big and monstrous
- find a social order whose laws were in greatest harmony with the
fundamental laws of nature
- thinker of the enlightenment
- interested in how society works
has the advancement of
civilization corrupted us or
improved us (made us more
- Natural man is peaceful we are
naturally peaceful - Man’s basic
psych. nature hypothetical
construct our internal natural
and external nature satisfaction
of needs mate, food, rest
- War is a social institution we
learned to attack once we are
- Man makes war a member of an
organized community his own
community against another “he
becomes a warrior only after he
becomes a citizen”
- Conditions that make society and
eventual warlike state: division of
labour, social inequality,
cultivation of plants,
domestication of animals, class
and wealth status emerge
- Some people pass the wealth on
to children wealth want to
maintain property gov’t wants
to protect the rich
- Man learns to act against one
another, to attack
- Tranquility and peace reigned in
the natural society
- In the state of nature, we are
innocent we have compassion
and can sympathize gives rise to
- The Leviathan strong beast-like
whale without a strong ruler,
human society is going to be in
chaos - We need a strong ruler,
the king, to keep us in line, to
keep us in check
- We need to be loyal to this ruler
- Hobbes is pessimistic
- Rejected feudalism the fact we
have rights
- Natural man is “warlike” – every
man against man all against all
- Social man is peaceful
- We desire power we are all
- Condition of equality among men
often gave rise to condition of
hope in that they would get more
- We desire things we can’t have
- Struggle war scarcity
- War for Hobbes refers to “the will
to contend” and fighting
- Men live in fear not very
- Life of man is “solitary, poor,
nasty, brutish and short”
- What makes society possible is
due to “common power to fear”
- When no common power of fear
exists, we result in war fear
falling back in that state
- Mean form social contract and
subordinate themselves to a
sovereign authority guaranteeing
them protection from forcer and
fraud they subordinate
themselves to a sovereign
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