Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
U of G (30,000)
SOAN (900)

SOAN 2112 Lecture Notes - Proletariat, False Consciousness, Petite Bourgeoisie

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2112
Linda Hunter

of 4
February 06, 2013 SOC 2111/2
- Capitalism
o labour as chief commodity
free labourers (sellers of their own labourers)
each worker is forced to engage in a simple operation
when each worker was forced to engage in a simple operation,
they are alienated from creativity
the organization will gain in efficiency and the worker loses in
worker (factory) now takes less time in performing a
craftsman who performs entire series of operation to create
something (not factory)
individual worker plays big price for increased productivity
no creativity
lifelong specialty of using one tool now becomes the specialty
of using one machine
division of labour enslaves the worker and class divisions
**VISUAL picture of spindle with little feet and a man with a
hat and it says “labour too appears as a thing, a commodity
which the labourer sells to the capitalist in a supposedly free
o owners
o materialism
o alienation
- Material Production Consists of 3 Components:
o Conditions of production
o Forces of production
o Relations of production
- Revolt
o Caused by alienation and degradation
o Organization of proletariat
- Socialism
o Classless
o No private property
Private property would be abolished and so would division of
labour people would become closely related, back to nature
and their social environments - environment that is less
o Reunion, individual and nature
o As the instruments of production vary, so does the division of labour
- Labour is a creator of use value a necessary condition, independent of all
forms of society, for the existence of the human race
February 06, 2013 SOC 2111/2
o Rich hire the working class, working class produce, the rich sell what
is produced, use that money to buy more people from working class,
and so on.
o In the new system, people will take pride in their work this does not
happen in capitalism their work is always for someone else they
are not happy
o Work, activity and creativity implies a full expression of human
o Labour in capitalist society takes on for Marx a very distinct form
labour is an expression of human capabilities
o Private ownership means of production
o Private property the product
- Private property private ownership by the capitalists of the means of
o Instead of controlling private property, they are controlled by it.
o Marx says they have to overthrow private property if they want to see
their true human potential
- Alienation
o Hagel
o Rousseau’s second discourse
o History of human kind is all about control and the notion of classes
struggling for power also about this concept of alienation = this is
how Marx saw alienation
- “Control of man over nature” – “alienation of man”
o Marx’s theory is about the loss of human power in society
o Today it is a distinguishing feature of human history and communism
is the solution
o We have created something that goes against our true nature
- “money is the alienated essence of man’s work and existence”
o essence of humanity is creativity
- Worker is:
o Alienated from the product he produces
o Alienated from the process of production the activity itself
o Alienated from self cannot develop a personality
o Alienated from others cannot work cooperatively side by side,
restrictions and noises in factories
- Spirit’s self-externalization in Hegel’s system is really just mane
x\externalizing himself in material objects and alienation is not being
estranged from the ideal’s of society but as man being estranged from the
products of his own labour in the money economy of capitalism.
o “In what does this alienation of labour consist? First that the work is
external to the worker, that it is no a part of his nature, that
consequently he does not fulfill himself in his work but denies himself,
has a feeling of misery, not of well being, does not develop freely a
physically and mental energy but is physically exhausted and mentally
debased. The worker feels himself at home only during his leisure,
February 06, 2013 SOC 2111/2
whereas at work he feels homeless. His work is not voluntary but
imposed, forced labour. It is not the satisfactory of a need, but only a
means for satisfying other needs.. Finally, the alienated character of
work for the worker appears in the fact that is not his work but for the
worker appears in the fact that is it not his work but work for
someone else, that in work he does not belong to himself but to
another person.”
o ‘ I don’t want to go through like ants’
o stop, go, walk here, drive there.
o Girl sees society as an ant colony
o We don’t connect with one another
III The Work (Marx continuing)
- class theory
o between classes, between exploiters and exploited
o class in itself becomes a class for itself
o petite bourgeoisie
o working class proletariat
o lumpen proletariat
o working class was bound to develop “class consciousness” once the
appropriate conditions were present
- class consciousness and False consciousness
o poverty and unemployment are not inevitable
o proletariat will develop an accurate conception of how capitalism
works and how it affects them (class consciousness)
o false consciousness describes the situation throughout the capitalist
- the communist manifesto
o exploitation that is open, unashamed, direct and brutal
o the emancipation of the working class must be the act of the working
class itself
- Communist Manifesto:
o “capitalism has ‘torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to
his ‘natural superiors’ and ahs left remaining no other
1) “existence determines consciousness”
2) material determines the ideological
3) economic substructure defines society’s legal and political superstructure
4) dialectic process
5) revolution
1) strict correlation’s were no demonstrated
2) Marx’s predictions have no occurred: