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SOAN 2120 Lecture Notes - Variance, Standard Deviation, Statistical Significance

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
David Walters

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September 27, 2012
Population parameters the entire group we are interested in
Sample statistics a portion of the population
Central tendency mean, median mode
Mean average
Median middle number
Mode most occurring
X use value from data set
I which value to start with
N number of values in your data set
Measures of variability - range, deviation, variance, standard deviation
Range = highest value lowest value
Deviation how far a measurement is form the mean/average of the set
- X minus the mean
Variance - to find sample variance sum of the squared of deviations divided by n
minus 1 from the number of values in a set
Standard deviation
Relative standing = z-score
Take ‘x’ substract mean and divide by standard deviation
SAMPLE formula:
“s” is the standard deviation
the “x” is where you plug in the obersavtion
number… which is the number you see in the data set
the x with line over top is the mean
**NOTE THIS: population and sample formula are really the same. You still plug
everything in the same way.**
outlier just get rid of it… it’s that number that’s way off from the rest of the data
Understanding z-scores
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