Class Notes (808,384)
Canada (493,172)
SOAN 2111 (130)
Linda Hunter (126)

October 26.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

October 26, 2012 – SOAN 2111 Enlightened Guys Charles-Louis baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) – separation of powers in government. Voltaire (1964-1778) – a novelist and outspoken social critic, a figurehead for the philosophes Jean Jacque Rousseau (1712-1778) – the best political system is one the reflects “the general will” of the people - unity of reason and observation in the scientific method - what is, but also what is possible - they were all interest in what is, or what is philosophically possible - measuring rod of reason – philosophes believe they could distinguish those aspects that were reasonable and good from those that were not - a better society, a better social arrangement - all previous knowledge was to be challenged – all to be tested and scrutinized and subjected to the test of reason - religion, natural sciences, everything was criticized - the twin foundations of authority – sustaining the old regime – the church and the unenlightened state – they wanted to change that – I want to enlighten people and criticize the established institutions - greatest political theorist of the political enlightenment – Montesquieu - Montesquieu (she said this is mostly from the reading because it’s right after the midterm) Introduction and Background - sought laws - 2 related ideas o people can develop laws and that are reasonable  they can do it if they have the freedom to do so o reasonable laws for one society may be different from those of another society  good laws depend on what the society is like - relativism  the idea of what is good or bad depends on the way a particular society works - Montesquieu was building society from bottom up o Law should be based on the way people live and think rather then the rulers to have subjects to obey them - allow people as much freedom as possible - he said that social phenomenon need to be governed by the same laws by the rest of the universe (that’s positivistic) Social Science – Spirit of Laws - deals with the laws, customs o looks at why things are as they are (church, state, gov’t) – tries to understand and explain society based on things that are part of the society o uses comparative approach to study of society - study of social science – conditions of time and place o societies could be distinguished by their customs and institutions o conditions of climate and geography  treated as social conditions  conditions of time and place in society o all rules cannot apply to all people – people as a society that can be distinguished by others through customs and institutions – change in one affects the other - laws and nature o 2 kinds of law: one of the physical world and the other of human life o ideal types and laws – comparative studies – elements of a society are functionally independent – calls this idea ‘the ideal type’ - Classification of society - Nature – what gives gov’t its form o Number of individuals in power o The manner they use o (1)Republic  Democracy  People as a body  Manner is established laws – people for people  Aristocracy  Part of the people  Manner is established laws – people for people  Rome, Athens, Sparta o (2)Monarch  A person  Fixed established laws  Modern Europe o (3)Despotism  Single person
More Less

Related notes for SOAN 2111

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.