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SOAN 2111 (130)
Linda Hunter (126)
Lecture 4

WEEK 4 READINGS P1.docx

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Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course
SOAN 2111
Professor
Linda Hunter
Semester
Winter

Description
WEEK 4 READINGS PART I: ZEITLIN CH. 13 AND CH. 14 – SOC 2111/2 CHAPTER 13: THE PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATIONS OF KARL MARX (1818- 1883) - revolution = transformation of the social system - Marx had a conception of ‘natural man’ – the individual human being, his needs, and his potential for development - Man is infinitely perfectible - Man’s essential powers – his latent and potential human powers – are unlimited in their capacity for development - Man’s latent creative powers were stifled and repressed under the social conditions of all class societies. - Capitalism, was not only preventing the fulfillment of his potential, it was even depriving hum of his animal needs – fresh air, food, sex, and so on - Marx thus condemned the capitalist system for its effect on individual human beings - The workers’ needs were now at the ‘barest and most miserable level oh physical subsistence’ and their activity for the better part of their waking day was a tedious and repetitive mechanical movement - For instead of developing his essential human powers, man was being debased and deformed and thus becoming something less than an animal - The dehumanization of a man was viewed by Marx as a consequence for alienation - Ludwig Feuerbach - Religion as an illusion – God was simply a symbolic expression of humanity’s yearnings for perfection. - Marx believe religion is the product of social alienation. - Humanity has been divided against itself by the social-class cleavages of society. It is the domination, oppression, and exploitation of man by man that has given rise to religion. Religious ideas are an expression of human suffering and a protest against it as well. - Marx concluded that a demonstration of the illusory character of religion was not likely to have liberating effects. So long as oppression and sharp inequalities prevail, people will continue to create comforting illusions. - Religion is an ‘opium’ because it so often leads people to seek meaning and happiness not in the human world but in the divine here-after - Men are alienated from their property and therefore compelled to sell their labor power to the capitalists entrepreneurs awaiting them. The two parties, capitalist and laborer, thus enter into an essentially instrumental relationship with each other - The more he produces, the poorer he becomes. - The worker puts his life into the object; but now his life no longer belongs to him but to the object. - The alienation of the worker from his product means not only that his labor becomes an object, an external existence, but that it exists outside him. - His labor is an alienating activity, not only because he loses the product in which he has reified a part of himself, but because the whole productive process in external to him and
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