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Chapter 8 Quantitative Methods .docx

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
D Walters

Dealing With DataCoding systematically reorganizing raw numerical data into a format that is easy to analyze using computersCodebook a document describing the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can usePrecoding placing the code categories on the questionnaire Entering DataIn a grid each row represents a respondent subject or case A column or a set of columns represent specific variables Makes it possible to go from a column and row location back to the original source of dataFour ways to get raw quantitative data into a computer o Code Sheet gather the information then transfer it from the original source onto a grid format type it in line by line o Direct Entry Method as information is collected enter the information instantlyo Optical Scan Gather the information then enter it onto optical scan sheets use optical scanner to enter information o Bar Code convert the information into different widths of bars associated with numeric values and use a barcode reader Cleaning DataCode Checking involves checking the categories of all variables for impossible codesContingency Cleaning involves crossclassifying two variables and looking for logically impossible combinations Results with One Variable univariateStatistics a set of collected numbers and a branch of applied mathematics used to manipulate and summarize the features and numbersDescriptive Statistics describe numerical data Can be categorized by the number of variables involvedo univariateo bivariate o multivariateFrequency Distribution the easiest way to describe the numerical data of one variableo Histogram o Bar Chart o Pie ChartFrequency Polygon for interval or ratio level data a researcher often groups information into mutually exclusive categoriesMeasures of Central TendencyMode the easiest to use can be used with nominal ordinal interval ratio data Consists of the most commonfrequently occurring number th Median the middle point also called the 50 percentile or the point at which half the cases are above and half the cases are below itMean the average the most widely used measure of central tendency can be used only with intervalratio level dataIf the frequency distribution forms a normal curve the three measures of central tendency equal each other If it is skewed they will be different Measures of VariationSpread another characteristic of a distribution which is the variabilitydispersion around the centerZero Variation if the mean and median are exactly the same and there is zero variation all the variables are the sameRange the simplest measure of variation consists of the largest and smallest scores subtracted from each other to find the amount in betweenPercentiles tell the score at a specific place within the distributionStandard Deviation the most difficult to compute measure of dispersion but it is the most comprehensive and widely used
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