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SOAN 2120

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Linda Hunter

Week 1 September 6, 2012: Introduction -Mid term 1 2 and exam 3a 4c 5 d 6 c September 11, 2012: Theory and Methods What is social Science?: - Anomie - Institutions - Ideologies - Paradigms - Environment shapes us to the people we later become - Trading Places Men created Sociology: - Max Webber - Karl Marx - Emile Durkheim - Founding fathers of sociology - Conflict Theory Marx - Functionalism Durkheim - Symbolic interactionism Webber - - Conflict Theory-: society is organized into conflict, conflict among competing groups - Conflict among social and economic classes - These classes struggle with one another for resources power prestige and income that conflict is problematic to resolve the conflict we need equality of result, equality outcomes, everyone is equal in the end - Start contrast is functionalism - If something exists in society it serves a purpose, its functions - When things in society things longer become dysfunctional theres an agreement that it should be removed society then becomes a state of equilibrium - Equality of result vs. Equality of opportunity Conflict Theorists argue 90% of university professors in the natural sciences are male and 50% of the population is female in the end the gender should be distributed equally Functionalist argue - 90% of the prison population is male - Their opportunity should be the same Theoretical perspectives ways of viewing the world: Conflict theories Conspiracy theories the rich are out to exploited the poor Also point out that functionalist is very nave that we live in a world of equality and opportunity Symbolic Interactionsim: - Individual level - - Interpretative school interpreting meaning behinds people behavior why do people do what they do - Perceptions of reality - all individually life in a world where we construct our reality how we react to certain things Contemporary sociology is about research Non-Testable theories: - Karl Marx in 200 the biography channel did a special on the 100 most influential people in the world Karl Marx was number 7 - Theory about social and economic change Capitalism was the most powerful force on the planet as well as evil over time capitalism creates inequality two different groups those who owned the means of productions and those who worked (poor proletariat and brougise the rich) eventually the poor they would mobilize together and create a class together and over throw the rich in violent Marxian revolution - Issue cause you cant test it you can falsify the theory - * Stigmen froid (psychology) valid theories that are impossible to test Testable Theories: - A theory is a general assertion of someone or something - 1. Experiments - 2. Survey Research - = Both ways that collect data that we will use in our tests - - Pre test record the size and they are identical - Treatment cell A gets treatment and other cell gets nothing - Survey Research to get data - What is a variable? Is anything that varies has to have more than one category can classify then into different things - Quantitative variables variables in natural measurement are numerical they can be ranked low to high (education and income) - Categorical variables no rank order and not numeric naturally (religion) - - Male and female are a constant they are a variable of a gender - Numerical value 1 is a constant but in terms of schooling it is a variable - A category of a variable is a constant Week Two September 13, 2012: Relationship between variables: - Correlation what is the relationship between the two variables - Scatter plot is important for quanative variables * - Patter of dots forms something thats not linear thats how we know not to use a correlation when it is linear it is a correlation coefficient - Closer correlation to one close the dots form a straight line Variable Classification: - Independent (cause) explanatory variables - Dependent (effect) or outcomes variables Good theorizing Advanced statistics - How do we know a relationship is significant? - The higher the correlation the stronger the relationship - P value tell us the probability of results due to chance * - Common thresholds* .05 x 100 - We dont use the word prove because of issue control - If we dont control for gender it would include that income is related to your big toe Survey Research: - Advantages- very good to tap into attitudes, quick and essay to administer, can be used on a large number of respondents, very generalizable to the population as a whole - Disadvantages control, Use quantitative research as a tool Qualitative Research: - Does not involve statistics - Sensitive information - Establish rapport - Not restricted by a rigorous research agenda - 1. Qualitative interviews - - 2. Participant observation September 20, 2012: Ethics Privacy: - If your observing without them knowing we are critically invading their privacy - Necessary to have in form consent - Anonymity the participants, in the study their names are anonymous to everyone including research - Confidentiality the participants are not anonymous to the researcher but the research keeps that information confidential Implications of Past Research: - Dated - Moral obligation to keep the participants private and if anything interferes those who are funding the observation are in jeopardy Ethics and Field Research: - Moral obligation to report anyone thats been harmed legal obligations forced by the police to report it - Law is tricky for social research in participant observation when people are doing things are immoral and illegal Variance Standard devotions = numerical summaries around the mean Distribution curve * Left = positive social variable like income Right = negative grades in forth year courses Left mean is greater than the median Right mean is less than the median Normal distribution allow us to conduct our test of statistical significance we can test our hypotheses because of this
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