Parker, Paul., Rowlands, Ian H., and Daniel Scott. 2003. ―Innovations to reduce residential
energy use and carbon emissions: an integrated approach.‖ Canadian Geographer
The article attempts to highlight issues of energy use within a residential community in
The source is useful to our study because it brings to light the factors that explain why
individuals choose to either conserve energy or abuse it.
The authors illustrate many community factors that influence individuals to participate in
energy conservation behaviours.
One strength is that it outlines social issues that may conceive to why people in residential
communities use an abundant amount of energy.
Another is that it includes framework to provide us with information to complete our project
[100 word annotation]
Ouyang, Jinlong., and Kazunori Hokao. 2009. ―Energy-saving potential by improving occupants'
behavior in urban residential sector in Hangzhou City, China.‖ Energy and Buildings 41:
Article shows the relationship between energy use and the household occupant behaviour in
Hangzhou city of China
Surveys conducted on 124 households
Highlights the benefits of improving occupants behaviour in order to create energy savings –
done so through energy-saving education
o By improving occupant behaviour can save 10% of more of household energy use
This study suggest that efforts for energy saving should be shifted away from technological
changes and more towards improving household behaviour
Study highlights the importance and benefits of our study in improving Guelph energy use
[89 word annotation]
Mullaly, Cathy. 1998. ―Home energy use behaviour: a necessary component of successful local
government home energy conservation (LGHEC) programs‖ Energy Policy 26 14: 1041-
Article suggests that domestic energy use behaviour has a major influence on total energy
consumption, therefore pointing out the importance of modifying occupant behaviour
Article demonstrates that Australia has difficulty measuring total influence of occupant
behaviour on energy use because of self-reports
Paper gives suggestions for different behaviour modification techniques
o EG. Giving prompts for appropriate behaviour and feedback
Article is useful in understanding the limitations of measuring and monitoring occupant
energy use behaviour [74 word annotation]
Costanzo, Mark., Archer, Dane., Aronson, Elliot., and Thomas Pettigrew. 1986 ―Energy
Conservation Behaviour: The Difficult Path from Information to Action.‖ American
Psychologist 41 (5): 521-528
This article suggests methods of improving the effectiveness of energy conservation
programs and discusses studies that have shown energy users failure to implement current
energy saving programs and technologies, even when it is proven to be cost effective.
The article suggests that information about energy use must attract the attention of their
target audience, make pamphlets more interesting. This is important for our study as it may
help the GIG program more effective
Further, the article discusses a number of implications, challenges and lack of effort in
energy efficiency consumption.
[90 word annotation]
Owens, Susan and Louise Driffill. 2008. ―How to Change Attitudes and Behaviours in the
Context of Energy.‖ Energy Policy 36 (12): 4412-4418
The researchers identify the need to attitude and behaviour modification in terms of energy
efficiency to manage demand and achieve step-changes in energy efficiency, and to secure a
sustainable energy supply for the future.
The authors focus on energy consumption (drawing examples from the domestic and
personal transport sectors) and sting issues (both established and novel technologies).
The article was intended to give future guidance in studying energy efficiency behaviours
and predicted the following themes would occur; knowledge on behaviours and attitudes,
dealing with complexity, avoiding mixed messages, the need of a systematic approach,
interdisciplinary insights and more.
[98 word annotation]
Newman, Peter. 2006. ―The Environmental Impact of Cities.‖ Environment and Urbanization 18
The article uses three approaches to understand the environmental impact of cities:
population impact (local scale), Ecological Footprint (global impact), and sustainability
assessment. These approaches are explain and applied to Sydney Australia.
The Sustainability assessment ―allows us to see the positive benefits of urban growth and
provides policy options that can help cities reduce their local and global impact while
improving their live-ability and opportunity, which continue to drive their growth.‖
The focus on the environmental impact of population growth will be an asset to our study as
we look to the future and population expansion of Guelph.
[98 word annotation]
Holmes, Tiffany. 2007. ―Eco-visualization: Combining art and technology to reduce energy
consumption.‖ Department of Art and Technology Studies, School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
In this article the author investigates the use of creative visualizations to encourage
ecologically responsible behaviour. This new form of art/technology has been dubbed eco-
Researchers used animations, installations and items (such as power-aware cords) to help
individuals recognize how much energy they were consuming by visualizing their spent
This may be useful for our study as it is interesting to use art as a tool for influencing
behaviour. The University of Guelph is engaged in eco-visualization (the UC water fountain
allows everyone to see how much water from plastic water bottles has been reduced).
[96 word annotation]
Ball, Richard., Cullen, Ross., and Christopher Gan. 1999 ―The Diffusion of Energy Efficiency
Innovations Among Residential Consumers.‖ New Zealand Economic Papers 33 (1):
This article discusses the diffusion and adoption of energy efficient devices in New Zealand.
They use qualitative measures to determine the motivation for residents to use the new
Perceived motivators included financial savings, price of new devices and life of the new
This article is useful to our research because it exemplifies various motivations for installing
energy efficient devices.
[61 word annotation]
Nassen, Jonas and John Holmberg. 2009. ―Quantifying the rebound effects of energy efficiency
improvements and energy conserving behaviour in Sweden.‖ Energy Efficiency 2: 221-
This paper examines the extent to which energy efficiency can reduce environmental impacts
because it may cause increased consumption (the ―rebound effect‖).
It uses a quantitative method called the ―rebound effect model‖ that accounts for the changes
in the price of energy services and changes in the real income of households.
A limitation of this paper is that it uses quantitative methods as opposed to qualitative
This paper will be useful to our research because it shows that energy efficient products may
actually lead to increased consumption and therefore may create greater impact on the
[97 word annotation]
Linden, Anna-Lisa, Annika Carlsson-Kanyama and Bjoern Eriksson. 2006. "Efficient and
Inefficient Aspects of Residential Energy Behaviour: What are the Policy Instruments for
Change?" Energy Policy 34(14):1918-1927 This article examines the residential energy behavior and instruments for change by
surveying and interviewing Swedish households.
A strength of the article is that it seeks resident‘s opinions on gauging realistic potential for
change and ways to achieve change.
Home owners requested more user-friendly technology and economic gratification programs
from the government for changing energy-efficient behaviors.